French Restoration

Restoration (in French history)

Restoration, in French history, the period from 1814 to 1830. It began with the first abdication of Emperor Napoleon I and the return of the Bourbon king, Louis XVIII, but was interrupted (1815) by Napoleon's return (the Hundred Days). After Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo, Louis XVIII was again restored as king of France. The Bourbon regime was responsible for considerable French economic recovery and expansion and for the restoration of French prestige abroad. These years also saw the growth of the romantic movement in French literature and arts. However, the period marked the failure of the attempt to reconcile the royalist and Revolutionary traditions. Increasing political influence was exerted upon the moderate Louis XVIII by the ultraroyalists, dominated by his brother, the comte d'Artois, who succeeded (1824) Louis as King Charles X. The ultraroyalists sought a return to the ancien régime. They were aware, however, that this could not be achieved and acted instead to ensure their own political and social predominance. Their power was finally broken by the July Revolution of 1830.

See N. Hudson, Ultra-Royalism and the French Restoration (1936); G. de Bertier de Sauvigny, France and the European Alliance (1958), D. P. Resnick, The White Terror and the Political Reaction after Waterloo (1966); J. H. Stewart, The Restoration Era in France (1968).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

French Restoration: Selected full-text books and articles

Re-Writing the French Revolutionary Tradition By Robert Alexander Cambridge University Press, 2003
France in Modern Times: 1760 to the Present By Gordon Wright Rand McNally, 1960
Librarian's tip: Chap. Nine: "The Bourbon Experiment, 1814-1830"
Ultra-Royalism and the French Restoration By Nora E. Hudson The University Press, 1936
FREE! The Duchess of Berry and the Court of Charles X By Imbert De Saint-Amand C. Scribner's Sons, 1892
Historical Dictionary of France from the 1815 Restoration to the Second Empire By Edgar Leon Newman; Robert Lawrence Simpson Greenwood Press, 1987
The History of France By W. Scott Haine Greenwood Press, 2000
Librarian's tip: Chap. 7 "An Unstable Era (1815-1870): Monarchies, Republic, and Empire"
The Extreme Right in France, 1789 to the Present: From de Maistre to le Pen By Peter Davies Routledge, 2002
Librarian's tip: "The Ultras and the Restoration" begins on p. 47
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