German Green Party

Green party

Green party, any of the political parties established in various countries to oppose the destructive environmental effects of many modern technologies and the economic systems and institutions that drive them. Many Green parties also advocate pacifism and strongly support human rights; the parties are typically grassroots leftist in their political orientation.

There are numerous Green parties in Europe. In 2003 the European Federation of Green Parties established the European Green party, in part in order to campaign on a common platform in EU elections; 50 parties are now members of the European Green party. The German Green party, founded in West Germany in 1979, had some political successes in the 1980s and merged with a group from the former East Germany in 1993. In 1994 it outpolled the Free Democrats, previously Germany's third largest party; it again was the third largest party in 1998, when it first entered the government in a sometimes strained coalition with the Social Democrats, and in 2002. In 2005 and 2009, however, it placed fifth, and was not in the government. Green parties in several other European nations have been part of coalition governments including in France (1997–2002, 2012–) and the Irish Republic (2007–11).

A U.S. group has existed since 1973; the Green party of the United States was officially formed in 2001 from the Association of State Green Parties. There are 43 state organizations affiliated with the national confederation. Ralph Nader was the Green party's presidential candidate in 1996 and 2000, and in the latter election the party garnered the largest vote (2.6%) of any U.S. third party. In subsequent presidential campaigns the party's candidates have been much less successful.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

German Green Party: Selected full-text books and articles

The German Greens: Challenging the Consensus
Thomas Scharf.
Berg Publishers Ltd., 1994
West Germany's Foreign Policy: The Impact of the Social Democrats and the Greens
Diane Rosolowsky.
Greenwood Press, 1987
Green Politics One: 1990
Wolfgang Rüdig.
Southern Illinois University Press, 1990
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "Party Activists versus Voters: Are the German Greens Losing Touch with the Electorate?"
Green Politics Two
Wolfgang Rüdig.
Edinburgh University Press, 1991
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 2 "Green Prospects: The Future of Green Parties in Britain, France and Germany"
All Power to the Imagination! The West German Counterculture from the Student Movement to the Greens
Sabine Von Dirke.
University of Nebraska Press, 1997
German Greens and Pax Europa: Joschka Fischer Envisions a European Alternative to American Hegemony
Hockenos, Paul.
The Nation, Vol. 279, No. 3, July 19, 2004
Transformation of the German Political Party System: Institutional Crisis or Democratic Renewal?
Christopher S. Allen.
Berghahn Books, 1999
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 5 "Green Trumps Red? Political Identity and Left-Wing Politics in United Germany"
Democracy in Western Germany: Parties and Politics in the Federal Republic
Gordon Smith.
Holmes & Meier, 1979 (3rd edition)
Letter from Berlin
Hockenos, Paul.
The Nation, Vol. 273, No. 13, October 29, 2001
Institutions and Institutional Change in the Federal Republic of Germany
Ludger Helms.
Macmillan Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Includes discussion of the German Green Party in multiple chapters
Democracy from Below: New Social Movements and the Political System in West Germany
Ruud Koopmans.
Westview Press, 1995
Librarian’s tip: Includes discussion of the German Green Party in multiple chapters
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