Andrei Sakharov

Sakharov, Andrei Dmitriyevich

Andrei Dmitriyevich Sakharov, 1921–89, Soviet nuclear physicist and human-rights advocate; first Soviet citizen to receive the Nobel Peace Prize (1975). From 1948 to 1956 he helped to develop the USSR's hydrogen bomb. In the 1960s he emerged as a prominent critic of the arms race and of Soviet repression, and in 1971 Yelena Georgiyevna Bonner, 1923–2011, a pediatrician who also was a human-rights activist, became his second wife. In 1980 he was exiled to Gorky; in 1984 Bonner was convicted of anti-Soviet activities and also restricted to Gorky. Sakharov's banishment inspired worldwide protest, and in 1986, after Gorbachev's rise to power, both Sakharov and Bonner were pardoned. In 1989 he was elected to the Soviet parliament, and briefly served before he died. Bonner remained a liberal critic of the Soviet and Russian governments until her death.

See Bonner's Alone Together (tr. 1986); biography by R. Lourie (2002); study by J. Bergman (2009).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Andrei Sakharov: Selected full-text books and articles

The Soviet Union and the Challenge of the Future By Alexander Shromas; Morton A. Kaplan Paragon Press, vol.1, 1988
Librarian's tip: "Blossoming of the Debate (1968-1974)" begins on p. 358
Inter-State Accountability for Violations of Human Rights By Menno T. Kamminga University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992
Librarian's tip: "USSR: Andrei Sakharov" begins on p. 22
The Rise of Russia and the Fall of the Soviet Empire By John B. Dunlop Princeton University Press, 1993
Librarian's tip: "Excursus on Andrei Sakharov" begins on p. 88
The Soviet System: From Crisis to Collapse By Alexander Dallin; Gail W. Lapidus Westview Press, 1995 (Revised edition)
Librarian's tip: Chap. 7 "Letter to the Soviet Leaders: March 19, 1970" by Andrei Sakharov, Roy Medvedev, and Valery Turchin
State and Politics in the USSR By David Lane Basil Blackwell, 1985
Librarian's tip: "'Instrumental Pragmatists': Sakharov and Medvedev" begins on p. 279
Politics, Diplomacy, and the Media: Gorbachev's Legacy in the West By Anthony R. DeLuca Praeger Publishers, 1998
Librarian's tip: "Sakharov and the Congress of People's Deputies" begins on p. 36
Russia and the Idea of Europe: A Study in Identity and International Relations By Iver B. Neumann Routledge, 1996
Librarian's tip: Discussion of Andrei Sakharov begins in "From the Ousting of Khrushchev to Perestroyka" on p. 141
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