perestroika (pər´ĕstroy´kə), Soviet economic and social policy of the late 1980s. Perestroika [restructuring] was the term attached to the attempts (1985–91) by Mikhail Gorbachev to transform the stagnant, inefficient command economy of the Soviet Union into a decentralized market-oriented economy. Industrial managers and local government and party officials were granted greater autonomy, and open elections were introduced in an attempt to democratize the Communist party organization. By 1991, perestroika was on the wane, and after the failed August Coup of 1991 was eclipsed by the collapse of the Soviet Union, the establishment of the Russian Federation, and other dramatic political, legal, and economic changes.

See M. Gorbachev, Perestroika (1988); E. A. Hewett and V. H. Winston, ed., Milestones in Glasnost and Perestroyka (1991).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Perestroika: Selected full-text books and articles

Perestroika: A Comparative Perspective By Avraham Shama Praeger Publishers, 1992
Glasnost, Perestroika, and the Socialist Community By Charles Bukowski; J. Richard Walsh Praeger Publishers, 1990
Conversations with Gorbachev: On Perestroika, the Prague Spring, and the Crossroads of Socialism By Mikhail Gorbachev; Zdenek Mlynar; George Shriver Columbia University Press, 2002
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Milestones in Glasnost and Perestroyka: The Economy By Ed A. Hewett; Victor H. Winston Brookings Institution, 1991
What Went Wrong with Perestroika By Marshall I. Goldman W. W. Norton, 1991
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