Borgia (bōr´jä), Span. Borja (bôr´hä), Spanish-Italian noble family, originally from Aragón. When Alfonso de Borja, cardinal-archbishop of Valencia, was pope as Calixtus III (1455–58), several relatives followed him to Rome. His nephew Rodrigo became pope as Alexander VI, and Rodrigo's illegitimate children were Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia; the later reputations of these Borgias made the family name a synonym for avarice and treachery. To the Spanish branch of the family belonged St. Francis Borgia and Francisco Borja (1581–1658), a Spanish general and viceroy of Peru. The direct line of the family, whose senior members bore the title duke of Gandia, died out in the 18th cent.

See studies by E. R. Chamberlin (1974) and C. Hibbert (2008).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Borgias: Selected full-text books and articles

The Life and Times of Lucrezia Borgia
Maria Bellonci; Bernard Wall; Barbara Wall.
Harcourt Brace, 1953
FREE! The Renaissance: Savonarola Cesare Borgia -- Julius II. -- Leo X. Michael Angelo
Arthur Count Gobineau; Oscar Levy.
G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1913
FREE! Medieval Rome from Hildebrand to Clement VIII: 1073-1600
William Miller.
T.Fisher Unwin, 1904
Librarian’s tip: Chap. IX "The Papacy of Alexander VI"
FREE! Lucretia Borgia: According to Original Documents and Correspondence of Her Day
Ferdinand Gregorovius; John Leslie Garner.
D. Appleton, 1903
The Protestant Reformation
H. Daniel-Rops; Audrey Butler.
J. M. Dent & Sons, 1961
Librarian’s tip: "The Temptation of the Flesh: Alexander VI, Borgia" begins on p. 220
FREE! A Short History of Italy: (476-1900)
Henry Dwight Sedgwick.
Houghton Mifflin and Company, 1905
Librarian’s tip: Chap. XXVII "The Papal Monarchy (1471-1527)"
Machiavelli and Renaissance Italy
J. R. Hale.
English Universities Press, 1961
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Three "Four Formative Years: 1500-1503"
FREE! Crises in the History of the Papacy: A Study of Twenty Famous Popes Whose Careers and Whose Influence Were Important in the Development of the Church and in the History of the World
Joseph McCabe.
G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1916
Librarian’s tip: Chap. XII "Alexander VI: The Borgia-Pope"
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