Borgia (bōr´jä), Span. Borja (bôr´hä), Spanish-Italian noble family, originally from Aragón. When Alfonso de Borja, cardinal-archbishop of Valencia, was pope as Calixtus III (1455–58), several relatives followed him to Rome. His nephew Rodrigo became pope as Alexander VI, and Rodrigo's illegitimate children were Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia; the later reputations of these Borgias made the family name a synonym for avarice and treachery. To the Spanish branch of the family belonged St. Francis Borgia and Francisco Borja (1581–1658), a Spanish general and viceroy of Peru. The direct line of the family, whose senior members bore the title duke of Gandia, died out in the 18th cent.

See studies by E. R. Chamberlin (1974) and C. Hibbert (2008).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Borgias: Selected full-text books and articles

The Life and Times of Lucrezia Borgia By Maria Bellonci; Bernard Wall; Barbara Wall Harcourt Brace, 1953
FREE! Medieval Rome from Hildebrand to Clement VIII: 1073-1600 By William Miller T.Fisher Unwin, 1904
Librarian's tip: Chap. IX "The Papacy of Alexander VI"
The Protestant Reformation By H. Daniel-Rops; Audrey Butler J. M. Dent & Sons, 1961
Librarian's tip: "The Temptation of the Flesh: Alexander VI, Borgia" begins on p. 220
FREE! A Short History of Italy: (476-1900) By Henry Dwight Sedgwick Houghton Mifflin and Company, 1905
Librarian's tip: Chap. XXVII "The Papal Monarchy (1471-1527)"
Machiavelli and Renaissance Italy By J. R. Hale English Universities Press, 1961
Librarian's tip: Chap. Three "Four Formative Years: 1500-1503"
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