John Bell Hood

John Bell Hood, 1831–79, Confederate general in the American Civil War, b. Owingsville, Ky. He resigned from the army (Apr., 1861) and entered the Confederate service 1862. He fought in the Peninsular campaign and at the second battle of Bull Run (Aug., 1862) and was promoted to the rank of major general in October. As a division commander under James Longstreet, he distinguished himself at Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg and at Chickamauga, where he won his lieutenant generalcy (Sept., 1863). In the Atlanta campaign of 1864 he fought under Joseph E. Johnston until Jefferson Davis, displeased with that general's retreat, made Hood commander. Hood, faring no better against General Sherman, was obliged to abandon Atlanta on Sept. 1. To prevent a further Union advance Hood moved against Sherman's long line of communications. Sherman followed, but later, satisfied that George H. Thomas at Nashville could cope with Hood, returned to Atlanta and marched to the sea. Hood then began to advance through Tennessee. John M. Schofield slowly withdrew before him, repulsing his attack in a bloody battle at Franklin (Nov. 30) before joining Thomas. In the battle of Nashville (Dec. 15–16), Thomas won the most complete victory of the war, virtually annihilating the Confederates. Hood resigned his command (Jan., 1865) and surrendered at Natchez, Miss., in May.

See his Advance and Retreat (1879, new ed. 1959, repr. 1969); S. F. Horn, The Army of Tennessee (1941, repr. 1959); biographies by R. O'Connor (1949, repr. 1959) and J. P. Dyer (1950).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

John Bell Hood: Selected full-text books and articles

John Bell Hood and the War for Southern Independence By Richard M. McMurry University of Nebraska Press, 1992
The Gallant Hood By John P. Dyer Bobbs Merrill, 1950
The Army of Tennessee: A Military History By Stanley F. Horn Bobbs-Merrill, 1941
Librarian's tip: Chap. XVII "Hood Takes Command-Atlanta Falls" and Chap XVIII "Hood's New Strategy-Tennessee Ho!"
Jefferson Davis's Generals By Gabor S. Boritt Oxford University Press, 1999
Librarian's tip: Chap. 5 "The General Whom the President Elevated Too High: Davis and John Bell Hood"
Atlanta 1864: Last Chance for the Confederacy By Richard M. McMurry University of Nebraska Press, 2000
Librarian's tip: Chap. Eleven "Hood Takes Command"
Civil War Generalship: The Art of Command By W. J. Wood Praeger, 1997
Librarian's tip: Chap. 13 "John B. Hood and Certain Differences in Confederate Strategy"
Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era By James M. McPherson Oxford University Press, 1988
Librarian's tip: Discussion of John Bell Hood begins on p. 745
Narrative of Military Operations during the Civil War By Joseph E. Johnston Da Capo Press, 1990
Librarian's tip: Discussion of John Bell Hood begins on p. 304
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Gen. Hood Unlucky in Battle, Unlucky in Love By Bean, David J The Washington Times (Washington, DC), October 7, 2000
No Band of Brothers: Problems in the Rebel High Command By Steven E. Woodworth University of Missouri Press, 1999
Librarian's tip: Chap. Nine "Hood, Davis, and the Army of Tennessee Elements Of Confederate Debacle"
Nine Men in Gray By Charles L. Dufour University of Nebraska Press, 1993
Librarian's tip: Discussion of John Bell Hood begins on p. 108
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