Invasion of Grenada


Grenada (grĬnā´də), independent state within the Commonwealth of Nations (2015 est. pop. 107,000), 133 sq mi (344 sq km), in the Windward Islands, West Indies. The state includes the island of Grenada (120 sq mi/311 sq km) and the southern half of the archipelago known as the Grenadines, a group of largely uninhabitable small islands and islets north of Grenada in the Windward Islands. Grenada is a volcanic, mountainous island with crater lakes. Like most Caribbean islands it is subject to hurricanes. One of the Caribbean's most active volcanoes, Kick 'em Jenny, is located underwater to the north of Grenada.

The capital, main port, and commercial center is Saint George's. The inhabitants are of mainly African descent and speak English, the official language, or a French patois. Over 50% of Grenadans are Roman Catholics; the balance is mainly Protestant, with Anglicanism the dominant denomination. Administratively, there are six parishes and one dependency. Grenada's economy is primarily agricultural, and bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, fruits and vegetables, and mace are exported. Textiles and clothing are manufactured, and tourism is a developing industry. The main trading partners are the United States and Trinidad and Tobago.

Governed under the constitution of 1973, Grenada has a bicameral Parliament with a 15-member elected House of Representatives and a 13-member appointed Senate. The executive branch consists of a cabinet, led by a prime minister, who is the head of goverment. The British monarch, represented by a governor-general, is the head of state. Administratively, the country is divided into six parishes and one dependency (Petite Martinique).


From its sighting by Christopher Columbus in 1498 until French settlement began in 1650, the indigenous Caribs prevented European colonization on Grenada. A point of dispute between England and France, the island became permanently British in 1783. The British colonists imported African slaves and established sugar plantations. In 1967, Grenada became an associated state of Britain with full internal self-government. When complete independence was achieved in Feb., 1974, Grenada became a full member of the Commonwealth of Nations.

In 1979 a successful, bloodless coup established the People's Revolutionary Government (PRG) under Prime Minister Maurice Bishop. This government's Marxist leanings and favorable stance toward Cuba and the Soviet Union strained relations with the United States and other nations in the region. In Oct., 1983, after Bishop and his associates were assassinated by more hard-line radicals within his own movement. The United States, supported by some other Caribbean nations, then invaded and occupied Grenada after Grenada's governor-general, Paul Scoon, requested the intervention. A general election held in Dec., 1984, reestablished democratic government, with Herbert Blaize as prime minister. In the following decade Grenada received aid from Western nations; tourism expanded, but in other respects the economy did not appear to improve. After elections in 1995, Keith Mitchell, leader of the New National party (NNP), became prime minister; the NNP won all the seats in 1999. The party and Mitchell narrowly retained power in the 2003 elections. Grenada was devastated by Hurricane Ivan in Sept., 2004. In the parliamentary elections of 2008, the opposition National Democratic Congress (NDC) defeated the NNP, and NDC leader Tillman Thomas became prime minister. Five years later the NDC was swept from office and Mitchell returned to power as the NNP won all the seats; Mitchell and the NNP repeated their sweep in 2018.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Invasion of Grenada: Selected full-text books and articles

Risk Taking and Decisionmaking: Foreign Military Intervention Decisions By Yaacov Y. I. Vertzberger Stanford University Press, 1998
Librarian's tip: Chap. 6 "Foreign Military Intervention with Low to Moderate Risks: Grenada, Panama, and Czechoslovakia"
The Politics of International Law: U.S. Foreign Policy Reconsidered By David P. Forsythe Lynne Rienner, 1990
Librarian's tip: Chap. IV "Overt Intervention in Grenada"
The Caribbean and World Politics: Cross Currents and Cleavages By Jorge Heine; Leslie Manigat Holmes & Meier, 1988
Librarian's tip: Chap. 8 "Grenada: Revolutionary Shockwave, Crisis, and Intervention"
Debating War and Peace: Media Coverage of U.S. Intervention in the Post-Vietnam Era By Jonathan Mermin Princeton University Press, 1999
Librarian's tip: Chap. Three "Grenada and Panama"
Democracy and War: Institutions, Norms, and the Evolution of International Conflict By David L. Rousseau Stanford University Press, 2005
Librarian's tip: "Invasion of Grenada, 1983 (United States versus Grenada)" begins on p. 250
United States Policy in Latin America: A Decade of Crisis and Challenge By John D. Martz University of Nebraska Press, 1995
Librarian's tip: "The Grenada Invasion: Approaches to Understanding" begins on p. 58
Caribbean Revolutions and Revolutionary Theory: An Assessment of Cuba, Nicaragua and Grenada By Brian Meeks University of the West Indies Press, 2001
Librarian's tip: Chap. 4 "Grenada: The Pitfalls of 'Popular' Revolution from Above"
Between Self-Determination and Dependency: Jamaica's Foreign Relations, 1972-1989 By Holger W. Henke University of the West Indies Press, 2000
Librarian's tip: "The Relations with Revolutionary Grenada and the Invasion" begins on p. 109
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