Russo-Japanese War

Russo-Japanese War, 1904–5, imperialistic conflict that grew out of the rival designs of Russia and Japan on Manchuria and Korea. Russian failure to withdraw from Manchuria and Russian penetration into N Korea were countered by Japanese attempts to negotiate a division of the area into spheres of influence. The Russian government, however, was inflexible, and it was willing to risk an armed conflict in the belief that Japan was bound to be defeated and that a Russian victory would head off the growing threat of internal revolution in Russia. Japan broke off negotiations and severed (Feb. 6, 1904) diplomatic relations with Russia. Two days later, without a declaration of war, Japan attacked Port Arthur and bottled up the Russian fleet. A series of quick Japanese victories, which astounded the world, culminated in the fall of Port Arthur (Jan., 1905), the victory of troops under General Oyama at Shenyang (Feb.–Mar., 1905), and the destruction of the Russian fleet under Rozhdestvenski at Tsushima by Admiral Togo's fleet (May, 1905). Through the mediation of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, peace was made in September at Portsmouth, N.H. (see Portsmouth, Treaty of). The disastrous outcome of the war for Russia was one of the immediate causes of the Russian Revolution of 1905. Japan gained the position of a world power, becoming the first non-European and non-American imperialist modern state.

See I. Nish, The Origins of the Russo-Japanese War (1985); J. N. Westwood, Russia against Japan (1986).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Russo-Japanese War: Selected full-text books and articles

The Russo-Japanese War in Global Perspective: World War Zero By John W. Steinberg; Bruce W. Menning; David Schimmelpenninck Van Der Oye; Shinji Yokote; David Wolff Brill, 2005
Becoming an Honorary Civilized Nation: Remaking Japan's Military Image during the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905 By Kowner, Rotem The Historian, Vol. 64, No. 1, Fall 2001
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Eastern Destiny: Russia in Asia and the North Pacific By G. Patrick March Praeger, 1996
Librarian's tip: Chap. 18 "Korea and the Russo-Japanese War"
The Pursuit of Power in Modern Japan, 1825-1995 By Chushichi Tsuzuki Oxford University Press, 2000
Librarian's tip: Chap. 8 "The Russo-Japanese War and the Annexation of Korea"
Endurance and Endeavour: Russian History, 1812-1992 By J. N. Westwood Oxford University Press, 1993 (4th edition)
Librarian's tip: "The Russo-Japanese War" begins on p. 139
United Government and Foreign Policy in Russia, 1900-1914 By David MacLaren McDonald Harvard University Press, 1992
Librarian's tip: Chap. 1 "The Witte Kingdom in the Far East" and Chap. 4 "The Lessons of War"
Great Powers and Little Wars: The Limits of Power By A. Hamish Ion; E. J. Errington Praeger Publishers, 1993
Librarian's tip: Chap. 7 "The Limits of Financial Power: Japanese Foreign Borrowing and the Russo-Japanese War"
Britain and the Last Tsar: British Policy and Russia, 1894-1917 By Keith Neilson Clarendon Press, 1995
Librarian's tip: Chap. 8 "The Russo-Japanese War"
Bayonets before Bullets: The Imperial Russian Army, 1861-1914 By Bruce W. Menning Indiana University Press, 1992
Librarian's tip: "Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905" begins on p. 152
Warriors of the Rising Sun: A History of the Japanese Military By Robert B. Edgerton Westview Press, 1997
Librarian's tip: Chap. One "The Crucible of Conflict-Northeast Asia"
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