Gettysburg Address

Gettysburg Address, speech delivered by Abraham Lincoln on Nov. 19, 1863, at the dedication of the national cemetery on the Civil War battlefield of Gettysburg, Pa. It is one of the most famous and most quoted of modern speeches. The final version of the address prepared by Lincoln, differing in detail from the spoken address, reads:

Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

See A. Nevins, ed., Lincoln and the Gettysburg Address (1964); W. E. Barton, Lincoln at Gettysburg (1930, repr. 1971); G. Wills, Lincoln at Gettysburg (1992); G. Boritt, The Gettysburg Gospel (2006).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2015, The Columbia University Press.

Gettysburg Address: Selected full-text books and articles

FREE! Lincoln's Gettysburg Address By Orton H. Carmichael Abingdon Press, 1917
Librarian’s tip: The text of the speech begins on p. 71
My Fellow Americans: Presidential Addresses That Shaped History By James C. Humes Praeger, 1992
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "The Gettysburg Address: The Great American Poem"
Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend By Lois J. Einhorn Greenwood Press, 1992
Librarian’s tip: The text of the speech begins on p. 177; analysis is in Chap. 6 "Lincoln's Gettysburg Address: Immediate Failure and Lasting Success"
The Gettysburg Address: A Sacred, but Elusive Text By Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL), November 18, 2013
U.S. Presidents as Orators: A Bio-Critical Sourcebook By Halford Ryan Greenwood Press, 1995
Librarian’s tip: "Abraham Lincoln" begins on p. 77
Lincoln Legends: Myths, Hoaxes, and Confabulations Associated with Our Greatest President By Edward Steers Jr University Press of Kentucky, 2007
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 9 "The 'Lost' Draft of the Gettysburg Address"
Real or Fake: Studies in Authentication By Joe Nickell University Press of Kentucky, 2009
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "Lincoln's Lost Gettysburg Address"
Virginia at War, 1863 By William C. Davis; James I. Robertson Jr University Press of Kentucky, 2009
Librarian’s tip: “'Lincoln Acted the Clown'" Virginia’s Newspapers and the Gettysburg Address" begins on p. 115
Arranging Grief: Sacred Time and the Body in Nineteenth-Century America By Dana Luciano New York University Press, 2007
Librarian’s tip: Discussion of the Gettysburg Address begins on p. 223
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