Salvador Allende

Allende Gossens, Salvador

Salvador Allende Gossens (sälväŧħōr´ äyān´dā gō´sāns), 1908–73, president of Chile (1970–73). A physician, he helped found the Chilean Socialist party in 1933, was minister of health (1939–42) and president of the senate (1965–69). Four times a presidential candidate, he won in 1970 by a narrow plurality. Attempting to implement socialism by democratic means ( "the Chilean road to socialism" ), he nationalized industries, including the U.S.-owned copper multinationals, and pushed extensive land reform. As a minority president, however, his programs provoked strong resistance in the opposition-controlled congress and judiciary. The Chilean people, too, became highly polarized, resulting in vocal support and often violent opposition. Instability was further fueled by soaring inflation and widespread shortages, caused in part by the U.S. economic blockade and the undercover activities of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. In Sept., 1973, Allende was overthrown in a bloody military coup led by Gen. Augusto Pinochet Ugarte. He was reported to have committed suicide during the coup, but many believed that he had been murdered. In 2011 his body was exhumed for an autopsy, which confirmed his suicide. Democracy was not restored in Chile until 1990.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Salvador Allende: Selected full-text books and articles

Allende's Chile: The Political Economy of the Rise and Fall of the Unidad Popular
Stefan De Vylder.
Cambridge University Press, 1976
Allende's Chile: An inside View
Edward Boorstein.
International Publishers, 1977
When the Romance Ended: Leaders of the Chilean Left, 1968-1998
Katherine Hite.
Columbia University Press, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 4 "Personal Loyalists and the Meaning of Allendisimo"
Politics in Chile: Democracy, Authoritarianism, and the Search for Development
Lois Hecht Oppenheim.
Westview Press, 1999 (2nd edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "Overview of the Allende Years, 1970-1973: Major Issues and Political Dynamics"
The Tragedy of Chile
Robert J. Alexander.
Greenwood Press, 1978
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 18 "Organized Labor During the Allende Regime," Chap. 19 "Foreign Relations of the Allende Regime"
Class Conflict and Economic Development in Chile, 1958-1973
Barbara Stallings.
Stanford University, 1978
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "The Allende Regime, 1970-73"
The ABC Presidents: Conversations and Correspondence with the Presidents of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile
Robert J. Alexander.
Praeger Publishers, 1992
Librarian’s tip: "Salvador Allende" p. 271
Latin America in the Era of the Cuban Revolution
Thomas C. Wright.
Praeger, 2001 (Revised edition)
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 8 "Chile under Allende: A Peaceful Road to Socialism?"
Biographical Dictionary of Marxism
Robert A. Gorman.
Greenwood Press, 1986
Librarian’s tip: "Allende Gossens, Salvador (1908-1973)" begins on p. 21
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