Oneida Community

communistic settlements

communistic settlements, communities practicing common ownership of goods. Communistic settlements were known in ancient and medieval times, but the flowering of such groups occurred in the 19th cent. in the United States, where a number of German pietistic sects established such communities as the Amana Church Society, Iowa; Harmony, Pa. (see Harmony Society); and Zoar, Ohio. Similar settlements were founded by the Shakers, Mormons, Mennonites, Dukhobors, and Jansenites. Unique religious settlements were the Oneida Community (see under Oneida, N.Y.); Hopedale, Mass.; and the Brotherhood of the New Life, N.Y. (see Harris, Thomas Lake). Other communities were non-Christian, often antireligious and utopian. The leading communities within this group were of two types, those founded by the followers of Robert Owen (including New Harmony, Ind., and Nashoba, Tenn.) and the numerous ones (notably Brook Farm, Mass.) formed on the principles of Charles Fourier. Belonging to neither of these groups were the Icarian settlements, led by Étienne Cabet, and the anarchistic villages of Josiah Warren. The religious groups, unified by strong faith and authority, tended to prosper and outlive the secular groups; the latter, however, often attracted brilliant and original personalities and provided a ferment of new thought. Among the most successful attempts since the 19th cent. at setting up such colonies have been in Israel, where a number of agricultural collectives (see collective farm) have been established. Utopian or utopian-influenced movements that arose later in the United States include the cooperatives of the New Deal period and the communes and coops of the 1960s.

See R. M. Kanter, Commitment and Community (1972); B. M. Berger, The Survival of a Counterculture (1981); P. Yeo, The Work of a Co-operative Community (1988); F. Jamison and S. Zizek, An American Utopia: Dual Power and the Universal Army (2016); C. Jannings, Paradise Now: The Story of American Utopianism (2016); E. Reece, Utopia Drive: A Road Trip through America's Most Radical Idea (2016).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Oneida Community: Selected full-text books and articles

The Loss of Religious Allegiance among the Youth of the Oneida Community By Roach, Monique Patenaude The Historian, Vol. 63, No. 4, Summer 2001
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Religion, Society, and Utopia in Nineteenth-Century America By Ira L. Mandelker University of Massachusetts Press, 1984
Librarian's tip: Part III "The Oneida Community: A Utopian Resolution of the Tension between Religion and World"
Samuel Johnson after Deconstruction: Rhetoric and the Rambler By Steven Lynn Southern Illinois University Press, 1992
Librarian's tip: Chap. XLVI "The Oneida Community"
America's Communal Utopias By Donald E. Pitzer University of North Carolina Press, 1997
Librarian's tip: "Free Love and Community: John Humphrey Noyes and the Oneida Perfectionists" begins on p. 253
American Culture: Essays on the Familiar and Unfamiliar By Leonard Plotnicov University of Pittsburgh Press, 1990
Librarian's tip: "Relations of Modes of Production in Nineteenth-Century America: The Shakers and Oneida" begins on p. 41
Escape to Utopia: The Communal Movement in America By Everett Webber Hastings House, 1959
Librarian's tip: Chap. Nineteen "Oneida and the Perfect Race"
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