Malcolm X

Malcolm X, 1925–65, militant black leader in the United States, also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, b. Malcolm Little in Omaha, Neb. A petty criminal in Boston and Harlem, he was convicted of burglary (1946) and sent to prison, where he read widely and was introduced to the Black Muslims, joining the group and becoming a Muslim minister upon his release in 1952. A charismatic and eloquent spokesman for the doctrines of black nationalism and black separatism, he quickly became very prominent, establishing many new temples in the North, Midwest, and California, and acquiring a following perhaps equaling that of the movement's leader, Elijah Muhammad. In 1963 Malcolm was suspended by Muhammad after a speech in which Malcolm suggested that President Kennedy's assassination was a matter of the "chickens coming home to roost." He then formed a rival organization of his own, the Muslim Mosque, Inc. In 1964, after a pilgrimage to Mecca, he announced his conversion to orthodox Sunni Islam and his new belief that there could be brotherhood between black and white. In his Organization of Afro-American Unity, formed after his return, the tone was still that of militant black nationalism but no longer of separation. In Feb., 1965, he was shot and killed in a public auditorium in New York City. His assassins were vaguely identified as Black Muslims, but this remains a matter of controversy.

See his autobiography (as told to A. Haley, 1964) and selected speeches, Malcolm X Speaks (1965); biographies by P. Goldman (1973, repr. 2013), B. Perry (1992), and M. Marable (2011); study by M. E. Dyson (1994); J. H. Clarke, ed., Malcolm X (1969); J. L. Conyers et al., ed., Malcolm X: An Historical Reader (2008); R. E. Terrill, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Malcolm X (2010).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2015, The Columbia University Press.

Malcolm X: Selected full-text books and articles

Making Malcolm: The Myth and Meaning of Malcolm X By Michael Eric Dyson Oxford University Press, 1996
African-American Orators: A Bio-Critical Sourcebook By Richard W. Leeman Greenwood Press, 1996
Librarian’s tip: "Malcolm X (1925-1965), Religious Leader, Civil Rights Activist" begins on p. 410
A Fatherless Child: Autobiographical Perspectives on African American Men By Tara T. Green University of Missouri Press, 2009
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "Malcolm X’s Declaration of Independence from His Fathers"
Malcolm X and British Muslims: A Personal Reflection By Journal of Religion and Popular Culture, Vol. 16, Summer 2007
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
"People All over the World Are Supporting You": Malcolm X, Ideological Formations, and Black Student Activism, 1960-1972 By Rogers, Ibram H The Journal of African American History, Vol. 96, No. 1, Winter 2011
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Malcolm X, Sexual Hearsay, and Masculine Dissemblance By Polk, Khary Biography, Vol. 36, No. 3, Summer 2013
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Malcolm X's Critique of the Education of Black People By Morris, Jerome E The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 25, No. 2, Summer 2001
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
"He the One We All Knew" By Njoroge, Njoroge Biography, Vol. 36, No. 3, Summer 2013
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
"Come Down off the Cross and Get under the Crescent": The Newspaper Columns of Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X By Wilson, Jamie J Biography, Vol. 36, No. 3, Summer 2013
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The Educational Development of Malcolm X By Muhammad, Najee E The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 26, No. 4, Winter 2002
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The Civil Rights Movement and the Continuing Struggle for the Redemption of America By Bush, Rod Social Justice, Vol. 30, No. 1, Spring 2003
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
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