Marcus Garvey

Marcus Garvey, 1887–1940, American proponent of black nationalism, b. Jamaica. At the age of 14, Garvey went to work as a printer's apprentice. After leading (1907) an unsuccessful printers' strike in Jamaica, he edited several newspapers in Costa Rica and Panama. During a period in London he took law classes and became interested in African history and black nationalism. His concern for the problems of blacks led him to found (1914) the Universal Negro Improvement Association and in 1916 he moved to New York City and opened a branch in Harlem. The UNIA was an organization designed "to promote the spirit of race pride." Broadly, its goals were to foster worldwide unity among all blacks and to establish the greatness of the African heritage. The organization quickly spread in black communities throughout the United States, the Caribbean, and Central America, and soon had thousands of members.

Garvey addressed himself to the lowest classes of blacks and rejected any notion of integration. Convinced that blacks could not secure their rights in countries where they were a minority race, he urged a "back to Africa" movement. In Africa, he said, an autonomous black state could be established, possessing its own culture and civilization, free from the domination of whites. Garvey was the most influential black leader of the early 1920s. His brilliant oratory and his newspaper, Negro World, brought him millions of followers. His importance declined, however, when his misuse of funds intended to establish a steamship company that would serve members of the African diaspora, the Black Star Line, resulted in a mail fraud conviction. He entered jail in 1925 and was deported to Jamaica two years later. From this time on his influence decreased, and he died in relative obscurity.

See Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey, compiled by A. J. Garvey (2d ed. 1967, repr. 1986); biographies by E. D. Cronon (1955, repr. 1969) and C. Grant (2008); studies by A. J. Garvey (1963), T. Vincent (1971), E. C. Fax (1972), E. D. Cronon, ed. (1973), J. H. Clarke, ed. (1974), and J. Stein (1985).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Marcus Garvey: Selected full-text books and articles

African American Political Thought, 1890-1930: Washington, Du Bois, Garvey, and Randolph By Cary D. Wintz M. E. Sharpe, 1996
Librarian’s tip: Part III "Marcus Garvey"
Marcus Garvey: A Controversial Figure in the History of Pan-Africanism By Dagnini, Jérémie Kroubo The Journal of Pan African Studies (Online), Vol. 2, No. 3, March 2008
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The Economic Philosophy of Marcus Garvey By Carter, Shawn The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring 2002
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The Politics of Race, Class, and Nationalism in Twentieth-Century South Africa By Shula Marks; Stanley Trapido Longman, 1987
Librarian’s tip: Chap. Seven "'Africa for the Africans': The Garvey Movement in South Africa, 1920-1940"
Integration or Separation?: A Strategy for Racial Equality By Roy L. Brooks Harvard University Press, 1996
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 8 "Marcus Garvey"
I Will Wear No Chain! A Social History of African-American Males By Christopher B. Booker Praeger, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 8 "Marcus Garvey and the New Negro Man"
Under Fire: A Rhetorical Analysis of Marcus Garvey's Apologia By DeSantis, Alan D Afro-Americans in New York Life and History, Vol. 17, No. 2, July 31, 1993
Marcus Garvey's Trial for Seditious Libel in Jamaica By Watson, Roxanne Journalism History, Vol. 33, No. 3, Fall 2007
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Between Race and Empire: African-Americans and Cubans before the Cuban Revolution By Lisa Brock; Digna Castañeda Fuertes Temple University Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 6 "Marcus Garvey in Cuba Urrutia, Cubans, and Black Nationalism"
Black Power Ideologies: An Essay in African-American Political Thought By John T. McCartney Temple University Press, 1992
Librarian’s tip: Chap. V "Marcus Garvey and the Resurgence of Black Nationalism"
Marcus Garvey: The Remapping of Africa and Its Diaspora By Lewis, Rupert Critical Arts, Vol. 25, No. 4, December 2011
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Foundations of Multicultural Education: Marcus Garvey and the United Negro Improvement Association By Chapman, Thandeka K The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 73, No. 4, Fall 2004
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
W. E. B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, and Pan-Africanism in Liberia, 1919-1924 By M'bayo, Tamba E The Historian, Vol. 66, No. 1, Spring 2004
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
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