Sitting Bull

Sitting Bull, c.1831–1890, Native American chief and spiritual leader, Sioux leader in the battle of the Little Bighorn. He rose to prominence in the Sioux warfare against the whites and the resistance of the Native Americans under his leadership to forced settlement on a reservation led to a punitive expedition. In the course of the resistance occurred the Native American victory on the Little Bighorn, where George Armstrong Custer and his men were defeated and killed on June 25, 1876. Sitting Bull and some of his followers escaped to Canada, but returned (1881) on a promise of a pardon and were settled on a reservation. In 1885 he appeared in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, but his championship of the Native American cause was not at an end; he encouraged the Sioux to refuse to sell their lands. Fearful that he would support the Ghost Dance religion, soldiers and Native American police sought to arrest him; he was killed when his supporters sought to stop his seizure by police. He was buried in North Dakota, but in 1954 his remains were removed to South Dakota.

See J. M. Carroll, ed., The Arrest and Killing of Sitting Bull: A Documentary (1986); biographies by S. Vestal (rev. ed. 1957, repr. 1972), A. B. Adams (1973), and K. B. Smith (1987); N. Philbrick, The Last Stand (2010).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Sitting Bull: Selected full-text books and articles

Legends of American Indian Resistance By Edward J. Rielly Greenwood, 2011
Librarian's tip: "Sitting Bull" starts on p. 109
The Ghost-Dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890 By James Mooney University of Nebraska Press, 1991
Librarian's tip: Chap. XIII "The Sioux Outbreak- Sitting Bull and Wounded Knee"
Shapers of the Great Debate on Native Americans--Land, Spirit, and Power: A Biographical Dictionary By Bruce E. Johansen Greenwood Press, 2000
Librarian's tip: Chap. 5 "Refugees in Their Own Land: Chief Joseph, Oliver O. Howard, Sitting Bull, George Armstrong Custer, Red Cloud, and Standing Bear (Ponca)"
Forgotten Americans: Footnote Figures Who Changed American History By Willard Sterne Randall; Nancy Nahra Perseus Books, 1998
Librarian's tip: "Sitting Bull and the Closing Frontier" begins on p. 190
American Indian Leaders: Studies in Diversity By R. David Edmunds University of Nebraska Press, 1980
Librarian's tip: "Sitting Bull" begins on p. 152
The Nebraska Indian Wars Reader, 1865-1877 By R. Eli Paul University of Nebraska Press, 1998
Librarian's tip: Chap. 6 "The War Club of Sitting Bull the Oglala"
PRIMARY SOURCE
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Frontier Regulars the United States Army and the Indian, 1866-1891 By Robert M. Utley University of Nebraska Press, 1973
Librarian's tip: Chap. Fourteen "Sitting Bull, 1870-76"
Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture By S. Elizabeth Bird Westview Press, 1996
Librarian's tip: Chap. 3 "The Narratives of Sitting Bull's Surrender: Bailey, Dix and Mead's Photographic Western"
Indian Heroes and Great Chieftains By Charles A. Eastman University of Nebraska Press, 1991
Librarian's tip: Discussion of Sitting Bull begins on p. 107
Moon of Popping Trees By Rex Alan Smith University of Nebraska Press, 1981
Librarian's tip: Chap. 11 "Sitting Bull"
Encyclopedia of Minorities in American Politics By Jeffrey D. Schultz; Kerry L. Haynie; Anne M. McCulloch; Andrew L. Aoki Oryx Press, vol.2, 2000
Librarian's tip: Discussion of Sitting Bull begins on p. 689
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