Presidential Primaries

primary

primary, in the United States, a preliminary election in which the candidate of a party is nominated directly by the voters. The establishment of the primary system resulted from the demand to eliminate the abuses of nomination by party conventions, which were often open to manipulation by party bosses. The primary was first used in local elections—as early as 1842 in Crawford co., Pa. The Wisconsin legislature established the first primary for the nomination of statewide candidates in 1903. In 1917 all but four states had enacted primary laws, which varied widely from state to state in scope and detail of administration. Many states extend the primary principle to the presidential level, providing for an election in which voters register their preference among presidential candidates and select state delegates to nominating conventions of the national parties. A primary may be nonpartisan, i.e., the candidates are not listed by party affiliation (usually in local and judicial elections); open, i.e., any registered voter may vote for a candidate for office from any party; or closed, i.e., only registered party members may vote for the party's slate of candidates. In a blanket primary the candidates of all the parties are listed on a single ballot; nonbinding primaries, sometimes called "beauty contests," do not require the party to adhere to the result of the primary in choosing its candidates. In states and localities where one party is dominant the primary, rather than the regular election, is crucial in the selection of officeholders. Critics of the primary system point to the great cost of primary campaigns and to the often unrepresentative nature of the comparatively few voters who thus select the party candidates.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Presidential Primaries: Selected full-text books and articles

The Primary Decision: A Functional Analysis of Debates in Presidential Primaries By William L. Benoit; P. M. Pier; Leann M. Brazeal; John P. McHale; Andrew Klyukovski; David Airne Praeger, 2002
The New Hampshire Effect in Presidential Nominations By Steger, Wayne P.; Dowdle, Andrew J.; Adkins, Randall E Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 57, No. 3, September 2004
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
A Functional Analysis of 2008 U.S. Presidential Primary Debates By Benoit, William L.; Henson, Jayne R.; Sudbrock, Leigh Anne Argumentation and Advocacy, Vol. 48, No. 2, Fall 2011
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Intergovernmental Grants and the Positioning of Presidential Primaries and Caucuses: Empirical Evidence from the 1992, 1996, and 2000 Election Cycles By Mixon Jr., Franklin G.; Hobson, David L Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 19, No. 1, January 2001
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The Viability Primary: Modeling Candidate Support before the Primaries By Dowdle, Andrew J.; Adkins, Randall E.; Steger, Wayne P Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 62, No. 1, March 2009
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Leviathan's Reach? the Impact of Political Consultants on the Outcomes of the 2012 Republican Presidential Primaries and Caucuses By Cain, Sean A Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 45, No. 1, March 2015
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Do the Presidential Primary Debates Matter? Measuring Candidate Speaking Time and Audience Response during the 2012 Primaries By Stewart, Patrick A Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 45, No. 2, June 2015
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Voting at the Political Fault Line: California's Experiment with the Blanket Primary By Bruce E. Cain; Elisabeth Gerber R University of California Press, 2002
The Party Decides: Presidential Nominations before and after Reform By Marty Cohen; David Karol; Hans Noel; John Zaller University of Chicago Press, 2008
The Money Primary: What Influences the Outcome of Pre-Primary Presidential Nomination Fundraising? (Articles) By Adkins, Randall E.; Dowdle, Andrew J Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 2, June 2002
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
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