Compromise of 1850

Compromise of 1850: The annexation of Texas to the United States and the gain of new territory by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo at the close of the Mexican War (1848) aggravated the hostility between North and South concerning the question of the extension of slavery into the territories. The antislavery forces favored the proposal made in the Wilmot Proviso to exclude slavery from all the lands acquired from Mexico. This, unsurprisingly, met with violent Southern opposition. When California sought (1849) admittance to the Union as a free state, a grave crisis threatened. Also causing friction was the conflict over the boundary claims of Texas, which extended far westward into territory claimed by the United States. In addition, the questions of the slave trade and the fugitive slave laws had long been vexing. There was some fear that, in the event of strong antislavery legislation, the Southern states might withdraw from the Union altogether.

The possibility of the disintegration of the Union was deprecated by many but was alarming to some, among them Henry Clay, who emerged from retirement to enter the Senate again. President Taylor was among those who felt that the Union was not threatened; he favored admission of California as a free state and encouragement of New Mexico to enter as a free state. These sentiments were voiced in Congress by William H. Seward. John C. Calhoun and other Southerners, particularly Jefferson Davis, maintained that the South should be given guarantees of equal position in the territories, of the execution of fugitive slave laws, and of protection against the abolitionists.

Clay proposed passage of a series of measures, originally separate then combined as an omnibus compromise bill. Support for this plan was largely organized by Stephen A. Douglas. The measures were the admission of California as a free state; the organization of New Mexico and Utah territories without mention of slavery, the status of that institution to be determined by the territories themselves when they were ready to be admitted as states (this formula came to be known as popular sovereignty); the prohibition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia; a more stringent fugitive slave law; and the settlement of Texas boundary claims by federal payment of $10 million on the debt contracted by the Republic of Texas.

These proposals faced great opposition, but Daniel Webster greatly enhanced the chances for their acceptance by his famous speech on Mar. 7, 1850. Taylor's death and the accession of conservative Millard Fillmore to the presidency made the compromise more feasible. After long debates and failure to pass the omnibus bill, Congress passed the measures as separate bills in Sept., 1850. Many people, North and South, hailed the compromise as a final solution to the question of slavery in the territories, but the measures lacked broad support as a group in Congress, each having been passed by different legislative coalitions. The issue of the extension of slavery reemerged in 1854 with the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and seven years later the factions were fighting the Civil War.

See E. C. Rozwenc, The Compromise of 1850 (1957); H. Hamilton, Prologue to Conflict (1964); F. M. Bordewich, America's Great Debate (2012).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Compromise of 1850: Selected full-text books and articles

Lincoln, the Rise of the Republicans, and the Coming of the Civil War: A Reference Guide By Kerry Walters ABC-Clio, 2013
Librarian's tip: Chap. 2 "A False Peace: The Compromise of 1850"
The Compromise of 1850 By Edwin C. Rozwenc D. C. Heath, 1957
The Union as It Is: Constitutional Unionism and Sectional Compromise, 1787-1861 By Peter B. Knupfer University of North Carolina Press, 1991
Librarian's tip: Chap. 5 "Last Ritual: The Compromise of 1850"
Space, Time, and Freedom: The Quest for Nationality and the Irrepressible Conflict, 1815-1861 By Major L. Wilson Greenwood Press, 1974
Librarian's tip: Chap. 7 "The Crisis and Compromise of 1850"
The Crusade against Slavery, 1830-1860 By Louis Filler Harper Torchbook, 1963
Librarian's tip: Chap. 9 "The Compromise of 1850"
The Origins of America's Civil War By Bruce Collins Holmes & Meier, 1981
Librarian's tip: Chap. 6 "The Compromise of 1850"
Student's Guide to Landmark Congressional Laws on Civil Rights By Marcus D. Pohlmann; Linda Vallar Whisenhunt Greenwood Press, 2002
Librarian's tip: Chap. 8 "Compromise of 1850 (1850)"
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Southerners against Secession: The Arguments of the Constitutional Unionists in 1850-51 By Huston, James L Civil War History, Vol. 46, No. 4, December 2000
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
A History of the American People By Harry J. Carman; Harold C. Syrett Alfred A. Knopf, 1952
Librarian's tip: "The Compromise of 1850" begins on p. 569
Dynamics of the Party System: Alignment and Realignment of Political Parties in the United States By James L. Sundquist Brookings Institution, 1983 (Revised edition)
Librarian's tip: "The Compromise of 1850" begins on p. 68
The Secession Movement in Virginia, 1847-1861 By Henry T. Shanks Garrett and Massie, 1934
Librarian's tip: Chap. II "Virginia and the Compromise of 1850"
The Road to Disunion: Secessionists at Bay, 1776-1854 By William W. Freehling Oxford University Press, vol.1, 1991
Librarian's tip: Chap. 28 "The Armistice of 1850"
A Cultural Encyclopedia of the 1850s in America By Robert L. Gale Greenwood Press, 1993
Librarian's tip: "Compromise of 1850" begins on p. 74
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