Rosa Parks

Parks, Rosa Louise

Rosa Louise Parks, 1913–2005, American civil-rights activist, b. Tuskegee, Ala., as Rosa Louise McCauley. A seamstress and long-time activist-member of the Montgomery, Ala., chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), she sparked the Montgomery bus boycott with her Dec. 1, 1955, arrest for refusing to give up her seat on a municipal bus to a white man. This successful protest, which lasted just over a year, marked the emergence of Martin Luther King, Jr., to national prominence as a civil-rights leader and provided the model for future nonviolent movement actions. Fired from her job and unable to find work, Parks moved in 1957 to Detroit, where she remained active in the civil-rights movement and worked (1965–88) as an aide to U.S. Representative John Conyers. She was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal, Congress's highest honor, in 1999.

See her autobiography (1992); biography by D. Brinkley (2000) and J. Theoharis (2013).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Rosa Parks: Selected full-text books and articles

The History Lesson from Rosa Parks; A Single Act of Responsibility Changes a Nation's Heart By Fields, Suzanne The Washington Times (Washington, DC), October 31, 2005
The Story Behind the Rosa Parks Story By Wiltenburg, Mary The Christian Science Monitor, February 20, 2001
Sisters in the Struggle: African American Women in the Civil Rights-Black Power Movement By Bettye Collier-Thomas; V. P. Franklin New York University Press, 2001
Librarian's tip: Chap. 4 "'Tired of Giving In': The Launching of the Montgomery Bus Boycott" by Rosa Parks
Daybreak of Freedom: The Montgomery Bus Boycott By Stewart Burns University of North Carolina Press, 1997
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Rosa Parks: Mother of the Civil Rights Movement By El-Kati, Mahmoud Diversity Employers, Vol. 36, No. 2, February 2006
Hail and Farewell to Rosa Parks: 1913-2005 By Chappell, Kevin Ebony, Vol. 61, No. 3, January 2006
Is Everybody Picking on Rosa Parks? By Mary Wiltenburg writer of The Christian Science Monitor The Christian Science Monitor, December 15, 2003
Remembering Rosa Parks: Recognizing a Contemporary Prophetic Act By Bush, Randall K Theological Studies, Vol. 65, No. 4, December 2004
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