Victorian Women

History tells a variety of stories about women who lived in the Victorian Age, spanning 1837 to 1901. Some of the women were portrayed as low-paid workers while others were known as great writers, philanthropists and campaigners for women's rights. The Victorian Age gets its name from Queen Victoria (1919-1901), who inherited the throne of Great Britain when she was 18 following the death of her uncle William IV in 1837. She married Albert (1819-1861), Prince of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, in 1840. Following her husband's death in 1861 Victoria spent a period of 10 years in mourning. Afterwards Victoria lived at Windsor or Balmoral, going abroad once a year. She was crowned Empress of India in 1876 but her popularity tumbled to its lowest level around 1870, due to the high costs of supporting the monarchy.

One of the major challenges facing women during the Victorian Age related to industrialization and its demographic, economic and social effects. Industrialization transformed agriculture and manufacturing in England, resulting in the concentration of large labor forces and capital in the cities. The Victorian working class comprised at least 80 percent of the population. Combined with the fact that most men did not receive earnings sufficient to support their families, there is no doubt as to why a large number of Victorian women joined the workforce.

Official data from 1851 reveals that 2.8 million women and girls over 10 years of age were in employment and accounted for 30.2 percent of the entire labor force. This figure fell slightly by 1901 to 29.1 percent. Most of the women took jobs as factory workers, domestic servants, milliners, seamstresses or washerwomen. Joining the workforce raised the problem of balancing family duties and earning a wage. Another challenge women faced was the intrusion of regulation into most spheres of life. The state implemented laws that made education compulsory, criminalized abortion, enforced the control of city populations and regularized industry and labor. The drive for regulation invaded personal lives, with special instructions issued for women on how to become perfect mothers and wives. The roles of men and women were rigidly designated, with all theories including social, biological and evolutionary, agreeing that men were superior.

Victorian women found ways to oppose the oppression. Some simply refused to raise their children using the social stereotypes preached, while others found a way through literature to support their cause. Thus, Charlotte Bronte's (1816-1855) Jane Eyre, when refusing to be Rochester's mistress, insists that she cares for herself. The protests against the status-quo were also made at an institutional level. Activists like Anne Knight (1786-1862) and Harriet Taylor Mill (1807-1858) lobbied for the right to vote for women. Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon (1827-1891) also defended women's rights but her focus was on the legislation that regulated women's status within marriage. The law stated that when a woman married, everything she possessed, earned or inherited belonged solely to her husband. Bodichon set up a committee to reform the law and to give married women the right to their own property. Within a year, the small committee had grown into a nationwide campaign group. Bodichon drafted a petition to Parliament which was published in 1856. Another influential woman was Jeanie Senior (1828-1877), who became the first woman in Whitehall.

Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) first promoted the idea that nursing should be a vocation for women. Nightingale not only provided vital medical help during the Crimean War (1853-56) but also informed Queen Victoria and Prince Albert about the state of the military hospital system. Nightingale opened the Nightingale School and Home for Nurses at St. Thomas's Hospital; was involved in the establishment of the East London Nursing Society (1868); supported the Workhouse Nursing Association and National Society for providing Trained Nurses for the Poor (1874); and also backed the Queen's Jubilee Nursing Institute (1890).

According to Lynn Abrahams in Ideals of Womanhood in Victorian Britain (2009), the perfect woman was epitomised by Frances Goodby, the wife of the Reverend J Goodby of Ashby-de-la-Zouch in Leicestershire. Abrahams states: "Mrs Goodby exemplified the good and virtuous woman whose life revolved around the domestic sphere of the home and family. She was pious, respectable and busy - no life of leisure for her. Her diligence and evident constant devotion to her husband, as well as to God, identifies Frances Goodby as an example to other women."

Victorian Women: Selected full-text books and articles

Aristocratic Women and Political Society in Victorian Britain
K. D. Reynolds.
Clarendon Press, 1998
Nobody's Angels: Middle-Class Women and Domestic Ideology in Victorian Culture
Elizabeth Langland.
Cornell University Press, 1995
Poor Women's Lives: Gender, Work, and Poverty in Late-Victorian London
Andrew August.
Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1999
The American Victorian Woman: The Myth and the Reality
Mabel Collins Donnelly.
Greenwood Press, 1986
Wives & Mothers in Victorian Industry
Margaret Hewitt.
Greenwood, 1975
Between Women: Friendship, Desire, and Marriage in Victorian England
Sharon Marcus.
Princeton University Press, 2007
Victorian London's Middle-Class Housewife: What She Did All Day
Yaffa Claire Draznin.
Greenwood Press, 2001
Madonnas and Magdalens: The Origins and Development of Victorian Sexual Attitudes
Eric Trudgill.
Holmes & Meier, 1976
Victorian Feminists
Barbara Caine.
Oxford University Press, 1993
Actresses as Working Women: Their Social Identity in Victorian Culture
Tracy C. Davis.
Routledge, 1991
"Not Worse Than Other Girls": The Convent-Based Rehabilitation of Fallen Women in Victorian Britain
Mumm, Susan.
Journal of Social History, Vol. 29, No. 3, Spring 1996
Giving Women: Alliance and Exchange in Victorian Culture
Jill Rappoport.
Oxford University Press, 2012
The Victorian Heroine: A Changing Ideal, 1837-1873
Patricia Thomson.
Oxford University Press, 1956
Confessional Subjects: Revelations of Gender and Power in Victorian Literature and Culture
Susan David Bernstein.
University of North Carolina Press, 1997
Victorian Working Women: An Historical and Literary Study of Women in British Industries and Professions, 1832-1850
Wanda Fraiken Neff.
Columbia University Press, 1929
Bound to Please: A History of the Victorian Corset
Leigh Summers.
Berg, 2001
Consuming Angels: Advertising and Victorian Women
Lori Anne Loeb.
Oxford University Press, 1994
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