Academic journal article Education

The Effects of Supervisory Task Statements on Preservice Teachers' Instructional Behaviors during Retaught Lessons

Academic journal article Education

The Effects of Supervisory Task Statements on Preservice Teachers' Instructional Behaviors during Retaught Lessons

Article excerpt

In order to acquire the skills that are needed to cope with the multitude of professional responsibilities of teaching, it is vital that student teachers receive explicit supervisory feedback about their performance throughout their teacher preparation experience (Ocansey, 1987, 1988). The more detailed and unambiguous the messages, the greater the chance that preservice teachers will successfully learn effective pedagogical skills (Tjeerdsma, 1998). Furthermore, providing meaningful supervisory feedback that is congruent with an observed lesson has been rated highest in developmental importance to preservice teachers (Keller & Grossman, 1994). In general, developmental feedback from supervisors has been found to be valuable (Ariza-Mendendez, 1992) with goal directed feedback as a successful strategy for improving pre-service teacher instructional behaviors (Sharpe, Hastie & Savage, 1998).

Providing supervisory feedback across sequenced teacher preparation experiences that vary in length and complexity is essential to the development of effective teaching skills (Siedentop, 2000). Supervised pedagogical experiences in teacher education programs often include peer teaching (Everhart & Turner, 1996; Strand, 1992), microteaching (Cruikshank & Metcalf, 1993; Imwold, 1984), small group teaching (Berliner, 1969) and finally, student teaching (Siedentop, 1986; Hastie, 1994). A multitude of developmentally appropriate teaching opportunities should be offered throughout the preservice experience. However, there have been few studies that looked specifically at the teach-reteach format (Imwold, 1984) and the effect this scheme can have on thes instructional behaviors of preservice teachers in an interactive classroom situation Receiving congruent and timely feedback about each teaching episode is an important component in teacher training. Therefore, it seems equally important that the preservice teacher be allowed to take that information and, in essence, reteach the same lesson using the supervisory feedback from that particular lesson.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of supervisory task statements on the instructional behavior of preservice teachers during retaught lessons.



Eight undergraduate students enrolled in an elementary physical education methods course were randomly selected to participate in the study. Each student had completed three required methods courses but had yet to complete student teaching. Six of the participants in this study were male and two were female. All of the participants were Caucasian. A written consent form was discussed and signed by each participant prior to data collection.


All lessons were taught at a local urban elementary school. The kindergarten through fifth grade school does not have a physical education specialist nor do they have a gymnasium. All lessons were taught either outside in a large park behind the school or in the school's classrooms or hallways. Outdoor teaching was either done on a grassed section of the park or a paved basketball court. Indoor teaching was completed in a classroom area approximately 20 feet by 20 feet (depended on how well the chairs and desks were stacked), or in 12 feet by 40 feet hallways.

Two first grade classes consisting of approximately 28 students each of African-American (50%), Hispanic (30%) and Caucasian descent were involved in the study. Each class was familiar with the expected rules and routines that occurred during physical education class because of the instruction provided by the same college class earlier in the academic year. Both classes were evenly divided into two groups creating four sections of 14 first graders. Each group received four 25-minute lessons of instruction focusing on educational gymnastics.


The eight participants were divided into two groups and assigned a supervisor. …

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