Academic journal article Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development

A First Look at the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders Screening Questionnaire: More Than Just a Screener?

Academic journal article Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development

A First Look at the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders Screening Questionnaire: More Than Just a Screener?

Article excerpt

This study examined the psychometrics of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders Personality Questionnaire (SCID-IIP) self-report personality questionnaire. The responses to the instrument were found reliable and evidenced good self-other convergence. Correlations with external criteria showed the SCID-IIP to contain broad personological information. The scale's basis in DSM-IV nosology makes it a potentially important tool for clinical research.

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Following the establishment of criterion sets for personality disorders (e.g., Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition [DSM-III; American Psychiatric Association, 1980]), clinicians and researchers have attempted to construct instruments that would yield responses that are valid and reliable for assessing these disorders. Because Axis II dynamics are likely to have an effect on the occurrence, expression, course, and treatment of Axis I disorders, having an efficient and reliable means of assessing characterological qualities becomes clinically imperative (e.g., Shea, Widiger, & Klein, 1992; Widiger & Rogers, 1989; Woody, McLellan, Luborsky, & O'Brien, 1985). The field has responded enthusiastically to this need by creating a wide spectrum of both interview-based (e.g., Personality Disorder Examination; Loranger, Susman, Oldham, & Russakoff, 1987) and self-report instruments (e.g., Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-Revised; Hyler, Rieder, Williams, & Spitzer, 1987). In comparison with the structured/semi-structured interview, in general, self-report instruments have tended to produce responses that tended to be as reliable and valid (Guthrie & Mobley, 1994; Trull & Goodwin, 1993) as well as being more economical to use. Although the current DSM system is interviewer based, the ease of administration and logistical parsimony of self-reports continue to make them popular in the field.

The most straightforward self-report instrument that is also directly tied to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994) criteria is the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Personality Disorders Personality Questionnaire (SCID-IIP; First, Gibbon, Spitzer, Williams, & Benjamin, 1997). The SCID-IIP consists of 119 items (which are the diagnostic criteria for the 12 different Axis II categories), and patients are asked to endorse the presence or absence of specific symptoms. There is no specific scoring of responses per se; clinicians merely use the endorsed items as areas that need to be pursued in detail when the structured clinical interview is conducted. Given the ease of administration and its ties to the diagnostic criteria, this scale would seem to be an ideal measure for research on personality disorders. However, First et al. (1997) have made it clear that they "do not recommend using the Personality Questionnaire as a stand-alone instrument for any purpose other than as a rough screening device" (p. 7). As a result, little attention has gone into evaluating this measure. To date, no research has been done with the DSM-IV version of the instrument, although some studies have examined the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition, revised (DSM-III-R; APA, 1987) version.

Ekselius, Linstrom, von Knorring, Bodlund, and Kullgren (1994) compared the results of the SCID-II interviews of 69 patients with the results of the SCID-IIP and concluded that the SCID-IIP may be a useful screener for personality disorders and has the potential to be an independent diagnostic measure in epidemiological studies. Ouimette and Klein (1995), using a nonclinical sample (97 college students), demonstrated that responses to the personality disorder scales of the SCID-IIP were relatively stable over time (median retest correlation was .69 over a 10-week period), not influenced by state depression, and relatively concordant with informant reports (median informant-subject correlation was . …

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