Academic journal article The Review of Metaphysics
Journal of the History of Philosophy: Vol. 41, No. 3, July 2003
Aristotle on the Etruscan Robbers: A Core Text of "Aristotelian Dualism," ABRAHAM P. BOS
This paper discusses the two texts by Iamblichus and Augustine which speak about human life as a continuous torture or punishment and which are said to originate from one of Aristotle's lost works (Protrepticus, fr. 10b, Ross). A non-Platonistic reading of those texts is proposed. They might be interpreted as a prime example of Aristotelian dualism that holds the soul always to be connected with a special soul-body, which is the soul's instrument. The anthropological view of Aristotle's lost works then appears to be compatible with the one of Aristotle's preserved biological works and even with the one of the De anima.
Scientific Methodologies in Medieval Islam: Induction and Experimentation in the Philosophy of Ibn Sina, JON McGINNIS
The present study considers Ibn Sina's (Avicenna's) account of induction (istiqra') and experimentation (tajriba). For Ibn Sina induction purportedly provided the absolute, necessary, and certain first principles of a science. Ibn Sina criticized induction, arguing that it can neither guarantee the necessity nor provide the primitiveness required of first principles. In its place, Ibn Sina developed a theory of experimentation, which avoids the pitfalls of induction by not providing absolute principles, but rather conditional, necessary, and certain first principles. The theory of experimentation that emerges, though not modern, does have elements that are similar to a modern conception of scientific method.
Leibniz's Argument for Primitive Concepts, DENNIS PLAISTED
On its face, Leibniz's argument for primitive concepts seems to imply that unless we can analyze nonprimitive concepts into their primitive constituents, we cannot grasp them. This implication, together with Leibniz's belief that we do conceive of some nonprimitive concepts, entails that we can analyze some nonprimitive concepts into their primitive components. …