Academic journal article Nomadic Peoples

The Nature of Biodiversity Protection

Academic journal article Nomadic Peoples

The Nature of Biodiversity Protection

Article excerpt

Resume

Definir ce qu 'est la protection de la biodiversite

Entree dans le discours academique il n'y a que quinze ans, la 'biodiversite' est devenue l'approche principale dans la recherche d'une relation soutenable entre les etres humains et la nature. A la suite d'une breve introduction historique sur les populations mobiles et la biodiversite, cet article decrit pourquoi une nouvelles approche etait necessaire et comment les '6 Is' la definissent: 'Investigation' (apprentissage du fonctionnement du systeme naturel et culturel); 'Information' (verification de l'existence de faits pour etre en mesure d'informer puis de prendre des decisions); 'Incentives' ou Interets stimulants (utilisation d'outils economiques pour conserver la biodiversite); 'Interaction' (lancement d'une approche qui implique les differents secteurs dans la conservation de la biodiversite); 'cooperation Internationale' (creation de collaboration productive pour la conservation de la biodiversite); et 'communautes Indigenes' (rendre la responsabilite de la gestion a ceux dont le bien-etre depend des ressources gerees). Cet article termine par une illustration de collaboration productive entre une zone protegee et les populations mobiles qui y demeurent. Puisque les populations mobiles survivent en s'adaptant anx conditions changeantes, elles peuvent faire une contribution unique aux efforts de conservation mondiaux.

Resumen

La naturaleza de lu proteccion de la biodiversidad

La 'biodiversidad' aparecio en el discurso acadrmico hace tan solo unos quince anos y se ha convertido en el metodo principal en cuanto a la busqueda de una relacion sostenible entre las personas y la naturaleza. Tras una introduccion historica breve sobre las poblaciones moviles y la biodiversidad, este articulo describe porque se necesitaba un nuevo metodo y como las '6 Is' lo definen: Investigacion (aprender como el sistema natural y cultural funciona); Informacion (asegurarse de que se dispone de hechos para informar y de ahi tomar decisiones); Incentivas (utilizacion de instrumentos economicos para ayudar a conservar la biodiversidad); Interaccion (fomentar un metodo que involucra a los distintos sectores para la conservacion de la biodiversidad); cooperacion Internacional (establecer una colaboracion productiva para conservar la biodiversidad) y comunidades Indigenas (restitucion del cargo de gestion a aquellos cuyo bienestar depende de los recursos administrados). El articulo acaba con una ilustracion de colaboracion productiva entre una zona protegida y las poblaciones moviles que viven en ella. Como las poblaciones moviles sobreviven adapt ndose alas condiciones cambiantes, pueden contribuir de forma unica a los esfuerzos de conservacion mundial.

Introduction

Mobile peoples--pastoralists, shifting cultivators, and hunters and gatherers--depend directly on nature's goods and services for their survival. As their cultures evolved over hundreds and thousands of years, they learned how to live within nature's constraints, often involving specific means to conserve the ecosystems upon which their welfare depended. Indeed, it could be argued that the rich biodiversity that characterises their territories is a direct result of their cultures: the areas of richest nature are in fact cultural landscapes.

But with the development of settled agriculture 10,000 years ago, mobile peoples increasingly were marginalised as many of the most productive areas were converted to agricultural uses. As farming and, later, urban populations increased, the mobile peoples were squeezed into smaller areas, sometimes striking back with a vengeance--Genghis Khan is a dramatic example. In the twentieth century, human population increased fourfold, from about 1.5 billion to 6 billion, with half the people living in cities by the year 2000. This growing population placed new demands on the lands of mobile peoples, including demands for conserving biodiversity. …

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