Academic journal article Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development

The Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator: Estimates of Reliability and Validity

Academic journal article Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development

The Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator: Estimates of Reliability and Validity

Article excerpt

This investigation was conducted to estimate the reliability and validity of scores on the Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator (D. R. Riso & R. Hudson, 1999a). Results of 287 participants were analyzed. Alpha suggests an adequate degree of internal consistency. Evidence provides mixed support for construct validity using correlational and canonical analyses but strong support for heuristic value.

**********

Standardized measures are expected to have published norms and an established record of reliability, validity, and predictive utility. As of yet, many personality assessments have not established this record. For example, some professionals and lay people use Enneagram personality measures such as the Cohen-Palmer Inventory (Palmer, 1988), the Wagner Inventory (Wagner, 1981), and the Zinkle Inventory (Zinkle, 1974) as a measure for gaining information about clients or for self-understanding. According to Riso and Hudson (2000), the Enneagram of Personality Types is a modern synthesis of a number of ancient wisdom traditions. The traditional Enneagram, however, only dates back to the 1960s. Enneagram advocates postulate that there are nine fundamental personality types, and the Enneagram System of Personality was designed to assess the degree to which an individual resembles each of these types (Riso & Hudson, 1999b). There is no one underlying theory that is the sole basis for the Enneagram. It was developed to accommodate a number of psychological constructs and different interpretations (Riso & Hudson, 1996). Many who have become acquainted with the system have found it to be accurate in describing their personality characteristics and dynamics. While some research on these Enneagram systems has been conducted (e.g., Brugha, 1998; Cusack, 1996; Edwards, 1991; Gamard, 1986; Perry, 1996; Pinder, 2000; Sharp, 1994; Thrasher, 1994; Twomey, 1995; Wyman, 1998), limited empirical validation has occurred.

A more recent Enneagram system is the Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator (RHETI; Riso & Hudson, 1999a), Version 2.5. The Enneagram is the foundation from which the RHETI is derived. According to Riso (1995), "The nine personality types of the Enneagram can ... be regarded as psychological 'functions' and 'potentials for' a wide spectrum of healthy to unhealthy traits" (p. 80). These nine types are theoretically related to each other. The nine personality types of the RHETI are identified as Reformer (Type 1), Helper (Type 2), Achiever (Type 3), Individualist (Type 4), Investigator (Type 5), Loyalist (Type 6), Enthusiast (Type 7), Challenger (Type 8), and Peacemaker (Type 9). The Reformer is the principled, idealistic type; the Helper is the caring, interpersonal type; the Achiever is the adaptable, success-oriented type; the Individualist is the romantic, introspective type; the Investigator is the intense, cerebral type; the Loyalist is the committed, security-oriented type; the Enthusiast is the busy, productive type; the Challenger is the powerful, dominating type; and the Peacemaker is the easygoing, self-effacing type (Riso & Hudson, 1999a). Limited empirical evidence, however, exists to support the reliability and validity of the scores on the RHETI.

Numerous investigations have been conducted using the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality as a way of interpreting and estimating validity of the scores of other personality measures (e.g., Costa, Busch, Zonderman, & McCrae, 1986; Costa & McCrae, 1995; Furnham, 1996; Gottfredson, Jones, & Holland, 1993; McCrae & Costa, 1992; McCrae, Costa, & Piedmont, 1993; Trull, Useda, Costa, & McCrae, 1995). Research indicates that the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) subsumes the majority of reliable variance of the constructs and variables assessed by other traditional personality assessment measures. Therefore, the NEO PI-R is a useful and appropriate tool for validation studies of other measures of normal personality. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.