Academic journal article Journal of Sport Behavior

Effects of Motivational Music on Work Output and Affective Responses during Sub-Maximal Cycling of a Standardized Perceived Intensity

Academic journal article Journal of Sport Behavior

Effects of Motivational Music on Work Output and Affective Responses during Sub-Maximal Cycling of a Standardized Perceived Intensity

Article excerpt

Researchers (e.g., Triandis, 1977) examining the antecedents of exercise adherence have suggested that affective responses might exert an influence on individuals' intention to exercise. According to Godin and Shephard (1990) the affective dimension typically refers to individuals' emotional responses to the thought of adopting behaviors and feelings elicited by the change in behavior (e.g., is the behavior perceived as pleasant/unpleasant or interesting/ boring?). Crucial to the development of such affective patterns are previous experiences of a given behavior, with positive experiences engendering positive feelings and a subsequent desire to repeat the behavior (Godin, 1994). Hence, it is important that participation in exercise sessions is a positive experience for individuals (Godin, 1994).

In ensuring that exercise is shaped into a positive experience, researchers (e.g., Hardy & Rejeski, 1989) have suggested that attention should be paid to both "how one feels" and "what one feels" during the exercise experience. The former refers to individual subjective feelings during exercise that may be characterized by moods or feelings of pleasure or displeasure (Hardy & Rejeski, 1989). The latter refers to subjective estimates of physical work intensity, also considered to be of major importance to those concerned with exercise prescription (Rejeski, 1985). It is suggested that both these factors play a role in exercise adherence (Rejeski, 1985). One strategy that has shown potential in positively influencing both of these subjective components during exercise experiences is the application of music. For example, from assessment of participants' mood during exercise, Boutcher and Trenske (1990), Brownley, McMurray, and Hackney (1995), and Karageorghis and Terry (2000) have all indicated that music appears to elicit positive affective feelings during exercise. Hence, improved affective responses as a result of the application of music during exercise could increase the likelihood of individuals attending exercise sessions.

However, some authors (e.g., Perkins & Epstein, 1988) have contended that attendance may be an insufficient measure of adherence. According to Perkins and Epstein (1988), factors such as the duration and intensity of exercise also require consideration. That is, individuals may be required to reach objectively defined levels of exercise intensity or duration in specific exercise sessions in order for adherence to a given exercise program to be evident. As such, the possibility exists that individuals may, for example, fulfil attendance criteria but may not be meeting the specified intensities or duration. Related to this, a body of evidence suggests that music may also be a viable aid for individuals' to reach specified levels of exercise intensity. For example, Szabo, Small and Leigh (1999) and Karageorghis and Jones (2000) found that music could improve progressive cycle endurance. However, such findings are not conclusive, with numerous studies also suggesting that music has little impact on work rates (e.g., Dorney, Goh, & Lee, 1992; Becker, Chambliss, Marsh & Montemayor, 1995).

In response to such contradictions, Karageorghis and Terry (1997) specified the need to address the methodological designs employed to examine musical effects. They suggested that an awareness of factors such as type of music employed, socio-cultural influences and appropriate dependent measures was required. Accordingly, Karageorghis, Terry and Lane (1999) emphasized the need for theory-driven research in this area and proposed the Conceptual Model for the Prediction of Responses to Motivational Asynchronous Music in Exercise and Sport. The model indicates that particular attention should be given to both musical factors (i.e., volume, tempo, rhythm, melody, lyrics) and personal factors (i.e., socio-cultural background and personal meaning) when selecting musical accompaniment to exercise. …

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