DESPITE LESSONS LEARNED FROM the Columbine High School tragedy, we continue to see incidents of school violence escalate. According to the National School Safety and Security Services, the 2003-04 school year saw 44 school-related violent deaths, plus an additional 64 school-related shootings that did not end in death--making last school year the most violent since the 1998-99 school year.
In response to this growing trend, an increasing number of schools nationwide are implementing video surveillance systems in an effort to improve student and faculty safety. The United States currently has about 100,000 schools, and only 16% of these facilities have some form of video surveillance system in place. While this figure demonstrates that schools are making progress toward the goal of improving their safety measures, more than 90% of these schools use analog, or closed-circuit television (CCTV), surveillance systems. Although useful for basic surveillance applications, CCTV systems fall short of offering the benefits of the more modern surveillance systems available today, which deliver enhancements such as remote access and video management.
Internet protocol (IP)-based systems are quickly emerging as a surveillance option that offers marked benefits over CCTV systems, as well as can contribute to increased security and safety across campuses. Today, only 5% to 10% of schools with a surveillance system use IP-based systems. However, as the cost of the technology decreases, and the functionality and ease of installation increases, schools are rapidly migrating to IP-based systems.
This article will present an overview of IP-based surveillance, giving schools a basic lesson in the way that the systems work with existing infrastructure investments and showing the overall benefits received from these systems. I will also highlight a case study of how a high school in is using video surveillance technology to improve teaching standards, student learning and security.
Building Blocks of Security
The foundation of an IP-based surveillance system is the camera. In the IP realm, surveillance cameras are known as network cameras because they connect directly to a computer network. Network cameras operate independently of PCs because they contain built-in image digitalization and compression, an operating system, and Web servers. This allows images to be sent over a school's local area network (LAN) or via the Web, enabling images to be viewed from any PC connected to the Internet.
Since network cameras plug directly into the existing data network via an Ethernet port, schools can save thousands of dollars by not having to wire their buildings with coaxial cabling as required with an analog camera installation. Instead, schools can leverage the existing network infrastructure that most of them currently have in place. IP-based systems also are highly scalable, allowing schools to easily add more cameras to upgrade the system's scope and breadth of coverage.
Many schools already have a network of CCTV cameras in place. Therefore, network video servers offer schools a low-cost, uncomplicated solution for converting to IP-based surveillance systems from analog. Video servers connect directly to a school's network and digitize images from analog cameras for transmission via the intranet or Internet. This enables schools to receive all the benefits of an IP-based system without investing in new network cameras. …