Academic journal article Kadin/Woman 2000

The Students of Sanayi-I Nefise School and the Position of Women in the Turkish Society at the Beginning of 20th Century in View of New Documents/ Yeni Veriler Isiginda Inas Sanayi-I Nefise Ogrencileri Ve Kadinin Toplumdaki Yeri

Academic journal article Kadin/Woman 2000

The Students of Sanayi-I Nefise School and the Position of Women in the Turkish Society at the Beginning of 20th Century in View of New Documents/ Yeni Veriler Isiginda Inas Sanayi-I Nefise Ogrencileri Ve Kadinin Toplumdaki Yeri

Article excerpt

Abstract

Various evaluations have been made about the women artists of today who have demonstrated their creativity in the plastic arts in the Republic of Turkey in which the woman was designated as a person who produced in an artistic world. In the discussion of woman's place in the artistic world in Turkey prior to the Republic, it is commonly held that the 15-year-period that extends from the Second Constitutional Period (1908) to the proclamation of the Republic (1923) was both an important era for westernizing efforts and a preparatory time for women artists. The development of the subject is generally seen as connected with the social and political events of the period and the education system.

Examining the infrastructure that provided for its formation shows that the "first" step in fine arts education for women, aside from private education, supports the genesis, was taken nearly 90 years ago in 1914 with the founding of the Girls' School of Fine Arts. It is essential that the importance of this first step and its place in education from the institutional point of view as well as student potential at the beginning and the individuals who had potential be scrutinized. However we have only limited information about the students of the Girls' School of Fine Arts. The information is limited since today that generation is no longer alive and an important part of the registrations connected with the school were destroyed in a fire. Just as we couldn't get complete fists related to registrations, we can't say that we have comprehensive information about the professional lives of the students whose names could be obtained through their education institution. So it is possible that a small detail that could be added to what is still not known about these students will be able to play a part in ensuing analyses.

Our purpose is to offer new biographic information not previously known about the students to the academic world and with this data determine the place that the students at the Girls' School of Fine Arts obtained in the women's art world; it will also shed light through a number of new evaluations related to the Turkish woman's socio-cultural evolution and place in society.

Key Words: plastic arts, Girls' School of Fine Arts, Turkish women artists, art education, girls 'school, Galatasaray Exhibitions.

Introduction: New Schools for Girls in the Ottoman Education System in the Second Half of the 19th Century

Information related to efforts to modernize the education of Turkish women came on the agenda as the westernization movements in the Tanzimat (Reformation) Period (1839-1876) gained speed. Ottoman intellectuals and high-level bureaucrats of the Tanzimat re-evaluated the education of women in terms of creating a desirable new society as part of preparatory education, and consequently place was provided for the establishment of the Ebe Mektebi (Midwife's School) (1842), the Rusdhiye (Girls' Grammar School) (1858) and the Kiz Sanayi (Girls' Arts School) and Darulmuallimat (Girls' Teacher Training School) (1870) (Tekeli, 1985, p. 468). It is understood that despite all the innovative thoughts from the Tanzimat to the II. Mesrutiyet (Second Constitutional Period)(1908), girls' education was restricted to girls' teaching training schools and girls' art schools. Establishing a higher-level educational institution for girls was only achieved in the Second Constitutional Period. On this topic the first initiative occurred with the opening of the Inas Idadisi (Girls' Preparatory School) in Istanbul in 1911. The school began continuing education under the name of the Inas Sultanisi/Bezmialem Valide Sultanisi (Girls' Secondary School) in 1913-1914. Following that first step, the Erenkoy, Camlica and Kandilli Sultanisi were founded. (1) From the point of view of the secondary schools established in the capital, as well as the other schools mentioned, there was continuity; however, in the provinces outside the capital, they weren't widespread. …

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