Academic journal article School Psychology Review

The Utility of CBM Written Language Indices: An Investigation of Production-Dependent, Production-Independent, and Accurate-Production Scores

Academic journal article School Psychology Review

The Utility of CBM Written Language Indices: An Investigation of Production-Dependent, Production-Independent, and Accurate-Production Scores

Article excerpt

Abstract. This study examined the utility of three categories of CBM written language indices including production-dependent indices (Total Words Written, Words Spelled Correctly, and Correct Writing Sequences), production-independent indices (Percentage of Words Spelled Correctly and Percentage of Correct Writing Sequences), and an accurate-production indicator (Correct Minus Incorrect Writing Sequences) and was designed to answer three research questions. First, how do these categories of CBM written language scores relate to criterion measures, thus providing evidence for their valid use in assessing written language? Second, how do the three categories of CBM written language scores compare to one another across grade levels? Finally, are there gender differences in CBM writing scores? Predictions were tested using a sample of 203 second-, fourth-, and sixth-grade students from an Illinois school district. Results indicated grade level differences in how measures of written language related to students' scores on a published standardized achievement test, their Language Arts grade, and an analytic rating. Specifically, with older students, the production-independent and accurate-production measures were more related to standardized achievement scores, an analytic rating, and classroom grades than measures of writing fluency. Implications were made regarding the appropriateness of using each type of CBM written language index for different age levels, gender, and assessment purposes.

**********

Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is an established procedure used to directly measure student performance in the general education curriculum. CBM can be used to create norms, measure students' achievement, and monitor progress in the academic areas of reading, written expression, spelling, and mathematics. An increasing number of educators and support personnel are turning toward the use of CBM within a problem-solving process (Shinn, 1995) to gather information for instructional decision making (Deno, Fuchs, Marston, & Shin, 2001; Fuchs, Fuchs, & Hamlett, 1990), eligibility decisions (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1997; Shinn, Ysseldyke, Deno, & Tindal, 1982), progress monitoring (Deno et al., 2001; Marston, Fuchs, & Deno, 1986), and other alternative uses (Deno et al., 2001; Elliott & Fuchs, 1997; Espin et al., 2000). The current study defines CBM (focusing on written language) as a standardized, short-duration fluency measure of students' writing skills gathered in the context of Shinn's (1995) problem-solving model.

Research on the Reliability and Validity of CBM Writing Measures

The reliability and validity evidence for uses of CBM in reading and mathematics is well-documented (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1997; Marston, 1989; Tindal & Parker, 1989). However, there is a need for more research on the reliability and validity of CBM in the area of written language. Previous research has examined the reliability and validity evidence for three types of CBM writing indices; production-dependent indices, production-independent indices, and an accurate-production index. Research investigating the reliability and validity of these three types of CBM writing indices is summarized below.

Production-dependent (fluency) indices. Production-dependent indices are measures of writing fluency because they depend upon how much a student writes. Deno, Mirkin, and Marston (1980) and Deno, Marston, and Mirkin (1982) found that Total Words Written, Words Spelled Correctly, Correct Letter Sequences, and Mature Words were all significantly correlated with written language criterion measures such as the Test of Written Language (Hammill & Larsen, 1978) and the Stanford Achievement Test (Madden, Gardner, Rudman, Karlsen, & Merwin, 1978; r = .41 to .88). These studies provided evidence that these scoring measures were closely related to other commonly accepted outcome measures. Additionally, Marston and Deno (1981) found strong evidence for the reliability of Total Words Written, Words Spelled Correctly, and Correct Letter Sequences. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.