Academic journal article Environmental Health Perspectives

Pesticide Spraying for West Nile Virus Control and Emergency Department Asthma Visits in New York City, 2000

Academic journal article Environmental Health Perspectives

Pesticide Spraying for West Nile Virus Control and Emergency Department Asthma Visits in New York City, 2000

Article excerpt

Pyrethroid pesticides were applied via ground spraying to residential neighborhoods in New York City during July-September 2000 to control mosquito vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). Case reports link pyrethroid exposure to asthma exacerbations, but population-level effects on asthma from large-scale mosquito control programs have not been assessed. We conducted this analysis to determine whether widespread urban pyrethroid pesticide use was associated with increased rates of emergency department (ED) visits for asthma. We recorded the dates and locations of pyrethroid spraying during the 2000 WNV season in New York City and tabulated all ED visits for asthma to public hospitals from October 1999 through November 2000 by date and ZIP code of patients' residences. The association between pesticide application and asthma-related emergency visits was evaluated across date and ZIP code, adjusting for season, day of week,

and daily temperature, precipitation, particulate, and ozone levels. There were 62,827 ED visits for asthma during the 14-month study period, across 162 ZIP codes. The number of asthma visits was similar in the 3-day periods before and after spraying (510 vs. 501, p = 0.78). In multivariate analyses, daily rates of asthma visits were not associated with pesticide spraying (rate ratio = 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.07). Secondary analyses among children and for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease yielded similar null results. This analysis shows that spraying pyrethroids for WNV control in New York City was not followed by population-level increases in public hospital ED visit rates for asthma. Key words: asthma, obstructive airway disease, ozone, particulates, pesticides, pollutants, pyrethroids, West Nile virus. Environ Health Perspect 112:1183-1187 (2004). doi:10.1289/ehp.6946 available via http://dx.doi.org/[Online 8 July 2004]

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Outbreaks of encephalitis caused by West Nile virus (WNV) have occurred in the late summer and early autumn months yearly in New York City since 1999. Birds are the reservoirs for WNV, and transmission to humans occurs via mosquito vectors (Roehrig et al. 2002). One component of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's (DOHMH) response to the emergence of WNV was to initiate a citywide adult mosquito control program, which included the application of aerosolized pesticides via truck spraying to residential and commercial neighborhoods and to other areas such as parks and cemeteries. Beginning in 2000, the dates and ZIP codes of pesticide spraying were guided by the results of WNV testing of trapped mosquitoes and dead birds and by surveillance for human cases of WNV infection.

The active ingredients in the brand of pesticide used in 2000 were sumithrin (10%), a pyrethroid, and piperonyl butoxide (10%), a benzodioxole, which acts as a microsomal enzyme inhibitor. Exposure to pyrethroid pesticides or their synergists can cause respiratory irritation, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, exacerbation of asthma, and death (Carlson and Villaveces 1977; He et al. 1988; Kolmodin-Hedman et al. 1982; Lessenger 1992; Moretto 1991; Newton and Breslin 1983; Wax and Hoffman 1994); however, we could find no data on population-level respiratory effects of large-scale mosquito control programs using pyrethroids. Exacerbations of existing respiratory illness such as asthma after pyrethroid pesticide spraying is a concern, particularly given the high rates of asthma in some New York City communities. Public concern for respiratory effects of pesticides applied for WNV control has been high (Gonzalez 2001; Zhao 2001).

In this analysis we focused on the 2000 WNV season, the first year in which the New York City mosquito control program exclusively used a pyrethroid pesticide. Pyrethroids continue to be the only adulticide (a pesticide effective in killing adult mosquitoes, as opposed to larvae) used by the DOHMH and are used extensively in other areas of the United States. …

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