Academic journal article Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

Exercise Physiology

Academic journal article Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

Exercise Physiology

Article excerpt

oxygen consumption (MAXVO2), waist to hip ratio (W:H), percent body fat (BF), body mass index (BMI), and fat free mass (FFM). Principal component analysis revealed 5 factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0. Visual inspection of the screen plot showed discontinuity between the 5th and 6th factors suggesting that 5 common factors formed the basic factor structure. Principal axis analysis of the preliminary factor solutions were carried out utilizing the varimax method to rotate factors into orthogonal relationships. This procedure grouped the variables into 5 distinct common factors. The criterion for exclusion of a variable from a common factor included high versus low loadings and a factor score greater Effect of Facemask vs. Mouthpiece Use on Physiological Responses to Exercise

A relatively new method of collecting expired air during metabolic studies is by using a facemask (FM), which covers both the nose and mouth. The purpose of this study was to compare metabolic and psychophysical data collected during treadmill testing using a FM (Hans Rudolph, Inc., Kansas City, MO) with data collected using a traditional mouthpiece/noseclip (MP) arrangement. Fourteen subjects underwent two submaximal exercise sessions (FM, MP), each consisting of 8 min of walking (W; 80.4 m |min.sup.-1~) and 8 min of jogging (J; 147.4 m |min.sup.-1~). The order of testing for FM and MP was counterbalanced as was the exercise mode (W, J) within each test. Oxygen uptake (V|O.sub.2~), minute ventilation (VE), heart rate (HR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every minute throughout the test. Subjective ratings of breathing apparatus comfort (BAC) were determined using an 11-point Likert-type scale where 10 = most comfortable and 0 = most uncomfortable. BAC was recorded during the last minute of W and J. Multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was performed separately for W and J data.


Results indicated that there was a significant overall effect of breathing apparatus during both W (p = 0.2) and J (p = 0.01). Follow up univariate ANOVAS indicated that only BAC differed between the FM and MP trials for both W and J, with FM-BAC rated more comfortable than MP-BAC. These data suggest that the type of breathing apparatus used during W and J testing does not affect either physiological responses or perceived effort. However, the subjective rating of BAC suggests that FM use is more desirable for metabolic data collection during treadmill exercise in young adults.

Classification of Physical Activity Status Using Self-Report Questionnaire Data

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate a new four-point scoring scheme using items from a self-report questionnaire designed to classify physical activity (PA) status. Methods: The scoring scheme was assessed in 1,612 public safety personnel with a wide range of PA habits. The Four-point PA score was based on two questions, (a) During your leisure time, about how many hours do you spend playing sports or exercising each day?, and (b) In comparison with others your own age, how much PA do you engage in during your leisure time? The scale is scored as (1) very low active: exercise |is less than~ 30 min/day classify self as less or much less active than peers, (2) low active: exercise |is less than or equal to~ 30 min/day and classify self as active, more or much more active than peers, (3) moderately active: exercise |is greater than or equal to~ 30 min/day and classify self as active, less or much less active than peers, (4) very active: exercise |is greater than or equal to~ 30 min/day and classify self as more or much more active than peers. Validation measures were: Maximal oxygen uptake (V|O.sub.2~max) - estimated from a modified Astrand-Ryhming cycle ergometer test; Endurance - max situps in one min; Strength - bench press one rep max; Flexibility - sit and reach test; Percent body fat - computed from three skinfold sites. …

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