Academic journal article Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport


Academic journal article Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport


Article excerpt

M 2% and the F 23% higher. The API youth's passing %s was 3 (M) to 10 (F) higher than the NCYFS passing %s on BMI. The data from this study suggest that API children possess high rates of healthy aerobic capacity and body composition when the FITNESSGRAM criterion-referenced standards are used for evaluation.

Fitness Tests as Opportunities for Cognitive Learning: Teaching Body Fatness Concepts While Skinfold Testing

The purpose of this study was to determine if concepts of body fatness could be taught to seventh grade school children by Symposium Child and Adolescent Obesity: Diet Intake, Energy Expenditure, and Public School Intervention

Obesity is a multi-factor chronic disease that currently carries an annual national bill of 30 billion dollars. Child and adolescent obesity is associated with higher risks for cardiovascular disease, including hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, abnormal glucose metabolism, and low exercise tolerance. The public health impact of obesity is growing as more individuals become obese at an earlier age and the degree of obesity exhibited is larger. Estimates show that obesity is present in as much as 25% of the children and adolescents and that obesity, as measured by skinfolds thickness, has increased up to 54% among children in the 6-11 age range. Child and adolescent obesity has been strongly associated with adult obesity, with 80% of obese adolescents becoming obese adults. The greater the severity of obesity the more likely obesity will persist into adulthood. Regardless of the specific cause of obesity, weight gain is always caused by an excess calorie intake which exceeds the calorie expenditure. Intervention generally includes two components which affect the intake and output of energy and these are diet and exercise. This symposium will address issues of regarding the development of child and adolescent obesity in the following areas: (1) public health impact, (2) influence of diet intake, (3) influence of energy expenditure, and (4) the potential for intervention in the public schools. (Sponsored by Health Management Resources, Boston.)

Public Health Impact of Obesity

The Surgeon General has ranked obesity as the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States. The importance of obesity as a preventable health problem can be highlighted by three statistics: (1) Based on changes in cholesterol, glucose, blood pressure, and uric acid associated with spontaneous changes in body weight, it has been estimated that if all Americans were at optimal weight, there would be 25% less coronary heart disease and 35% less congestive heart failure and stroke; (2) If the diabetics who were obese were to obtain normal weight, the annual reduction in hemodyalisis costs for renal failure alone would exceed $200 million dollars; (3) If body mass of the American population were normalized, this would produce a total reduction of 15% in mortality corresponding to three years of added life expectancy. Our children are experiencing an epidemic of obesity and low fitness levels as well. Obviously, the most effective way to control adult obesity and other negative lifestyle behaviors is through imparting appropriate nutritional and physical activity patterns during the formative years. This presentation will focus attention on the enormous public health costs of obesity and attempt to clarify existing ambiguities in relation to the definition and classification of obesity as a health risk for children and adults.

Role of Energy Expenditure in the Development and Prevention of Childhood Obesity

Obesity currently affects 25% of children, is a major cause of pediatric hypertension, and remains a high risk factor for non-insulin-dependant diabetes, heart disease and early death when it persists into adulthood. Obesity arises because of a mismatch between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, it is unknown whether this dysregulation of energy balance is the result of excess energy intake or reduced energy expenditure, or a combination of both. …

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