Academic journal article Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

Pedagogy

Academic journal article Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

Pedagogy

Article excerpt

Self-Perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985), the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Duda and Nicholls, 1990), and the Martin's Attitude Scale (modified by Phillips and Carlisle, 1984). Comparisons were made between grade, gender, and task response groups on all variables. A number of significant main effects differences were found in the 3-way ANOVA's. Post-hoc comparisons revealed that on-task and modifies-task students scored significantly higher on perceived athletic competence than off-task students; 4th grade students scored significantly higher than 6/7th and 9th grade students; and males scored significantly higher than females on PAC. Significant main effects for task response rating and grade Symposium

Psycho-Social Models for Working With Diverse Populations in Physical Education

Few would argue that the search for effective teaching strategies and appropriate material for learning cannot take place without careful consideration of individual student differences. While this principle makes good moral and ethical sense, the job of dealing with the complexity of individual differences can be overwhelming. Consequently, teachers must become aware of how these differences affect interactions with each of their students. In terms of learning models, certain factors have been found to affect how students learn. The simplest type of model, for example, is the minimum assumption model. This model assumes that learning occurs as a function of the amount of time spent in study and practice. Other factors do not affect the learning process. Consequently, certain methods are recommended regardless of the instructional setting. An alternative model is classified as a process model. This type of model attempts to explain how information is processed by the students and how individual student differences interact with cognitive function. It provides a thorough look at the complex nature of instruction. The purpose of this symposium is to provide an overview of research that focuses on selected student characteristics that are known to interact with learning physical skills. Kay Williamson and Don Hellison describe research that has studied the "at-risk" students. Special emphasis is placed on testing the validity of intervention programs that address instructional problems associated with this type of student. J. B. Griffith and Tom Martinek provide an overview of research pertaining to learned helpless students and their achievement behavior in physical education. Adrian Turner gives a model for responding to students with disparate cognitive abilities and decision-making skills. Finally, William Karper presents a summary of his research on mainstreaming in physical education. All presenters conclude with implications for teacher education.

A Physical Education Model for Working With At-Risk Students

The purpose of this paper is to describe a curriculum model for working with at-risk youth in school and agency-based physical education programs (both in school or after school). The model is primarily humanistic, affective, or personal-social (choose your favorite label) in nature. Physical activities provide an attractive, interactive, and emotional intervention medium. The model can therefore be viewed as an attempt to put holistic health (physical, emotional, social, and spiritual) into practice in the gym. As such, it is an extension, with revisions, of the education through the physical heritage of physical education. The model has four goals--self-control and respect for the rights and feelings of others, effort and success opportunities, self-direction, and service to others including contribution to the community--and five "generic" instructional strategies--awareness, experience, individual decision-making and negotiation, student sharing and group decision-making, and self-reflection. The model has been field tested by university professors and graduate students (who actually teach at-risk kids) over the past twenty years, most recently in Chicago. …

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