Research and Organizational Change: Women in the Canadian Forces

Article excerpt

In recent decades, social science research has provided valuable input to Canadian Forces (CF) decisions to expand the roles of women in the military as well as the processes developed to support the increasing participation of women. In addition, social science research has continuously challenged stereotypical perceptions of the competencies and abilities of women, and the potential impact of women on cohesion, morale, trust, teamwork, etc.--perceptions that have created considerable resistance to the introduction of women into once all-male domains. This paper identifies the relationship between social and legal processes in Canada, social science research conducted by the organization, and subsequent change to policies and programs impacting the participation of women in the CF. Beginning with the proclamation of the Canadian Human Rights Act in 1978, the paper moves through four periods linking 'milestone' research with CF response to Canadian socio-legal processes. Suggesting that research in support of further integration of women in the CF has assumed a low priority since the 1999 10-year Canadian Human Rights Tribunal decision on the integration of women, the discussion concludes with suggestions for further research to ensure that women become full participants in the CF.

Today, close to 8,000 women are serving in the Regular Component of the Canadian Forces (CF), and an additional 10,000 serve in the Reserves on full and part time commitments. Overall representation is 12.5 percent and 23.8 percent in the Regular and Reserve Forces, respectively. Participation ranges from approximately 75 percent in the nursing occupation to less than one per cent in some of the operational occupations such as the land combat arms (data provided by the Directorate of Military Gender Integration and Employment Equity, Department of National Defence (DND)). On the one hand, the increased representation and the expanded range of employment of women in the military in Canada can be attributed to the nation's need for 'womanpower' to replace a diminishing pool of traditional recruits - young white males. On the other hand, various legal and political struggles have resulted in increased equal employment opportunities for women. In particular, this includes: the 1969 Royal Commission on the Status of Women in Canada, the proclamation of the Canadian Human Rights Act in 1978, the 1989 Canadian Human Rights Tribunal ruling on gender integration in the CF (Davis, 1996), and most recently the Employment Equity Act (1995).

Prior to 1969 and the recommendations resulting from the Royal Commission on the Status of Women in Canada, Canadian military policy regarding women's participation reflected wartime needs for 'womanpower' to supplement shortages of manpower. For example, until July 1968 the maximum number of women in the Army, Navy and Air Force combined was set at a fixed ceiling of 1,500. Following the Royal Commission, both the above and other restrictions impacting the participation of women were removed. In 1971, enrolment criteria expanded to include married women, women could continue to serve following the birth of a child, women were enrolled in the Regular Officer Training Plan (ROTP), and senior defence leadership directed that there would be no limitations on the employment of women "other than in the primary combat role, at some remote locations and at sea" (Davis, 1996). By the end of 1978, women numbered 4,786 to comprise 5.9 percent of the Regular component of the CF (DND, 1993), women were employed in 81 of 127 non-commissioned trades and officer classifications, and they were attending the CF Staff and National Defence Colleges (Davis, 1996).

Following decades of incremental change and struggle, women are now relatively well-represented in the areas of human resource policy analysis and development; however, they are significantly under-represented in leadership roles in day-to-day peacetime operations and operational deployments, both domestic and international. In addition, they are not fully integrated into key decision-making processes, which influence future direction and strategy for the CF. There are 359 women in the senior officer corps comprising approximately 7.8 percent of senior officers1 (DND, Aug. 2004), ranging from less than one percent of operational occupations such as land combat arms, pilot, air navigator, and maritime surface and sub-surface officer to 20 percent of senior logistics officers and 75 percent of senior nursing officers. There are 1,114 women serving as senior non-commissioned officers, representing approximately 8.6 percent of the senior noncommissioned ranks2 (DND, Aug. 2004). It is the leadership at these levels that continues to have a predominant impact on the implementation of policy, and the culture of the military. Consequently, the CF continues to be a male-dominated and male cultural environment in spite of the significant progress that has been made in integrating women in recent decades.

This presentation of social science research related to the integration of women in the CF is organized in terms of CF's response to equality and human rights milestones in Canada. These milestones provided persuasive grounds upon which to move organizational activities forward in support of the increasing participation of women, including the research agenda. Within each of the periods of research, the key questions that provided impetus for the research are identified as well as the methodologies used to answer the questions presented by the organization. For the purposes of this paper, the periods of research are delineated as follows:

1) 1978-1985, comprising research in response to the 1978 Canadian Human Rights Act;

2) 1986-1989, comprising the response to the 1985 parliamentary committee on equality rights, and subsequent CF Charter Task Force on Equality Issues in 1986;

3) 1989-1999, the research and CF response to the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal Ruling in 1989; and,

4) 2000-present, the post-Tribunal response. As we move through the various periods, the focus of the research provides insight into the posture of the organization in reference to the status of women. In the final analysis, it is suggested that the CF would benefit from more research on the participation of women; however, the research agenda is not likely to move forward in the absence of external persuasion from the national social and legal community.

1978-1985: RESPONSE TO THE 1978 CANADIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ACT

In 1978, the Canadian Human Rights Act was proclaimed prohibiting discrimination in employment practices on the basis of race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, marital status, family status, pardoned conviction, and disability (Minister of Supply & Services Canada, 1982). In June 1978, the CF Directorate of Personnel Development Studies published the findings of a survey in reference to the employment of women in combat roles and isolated postings, which was administered to over 4,000 CF members and their spouses (DND, 1978).

The majority of those polled expressed support for providing women with the opportunity to serve as aircrew, most of those polled were opposed to women serving in the combat arms and in submarines, and opinion was split in reference to women serving onboard naval destroyers. With the exception of spouses, most respondents believed that women should have the opportunity to serve at isolated postings. For the most part, opinion was directly related to respondent perceptions of the impact that women would have on operational effectiveness. For example, most opposed the service of women in the combat arms and most perceived that operational effectiveness would be degraded if women were introduced into the combat arms. On the other hand, a majority supported the service of women on support ships and most believed that the presence of women would not impact, or would improve, the operational effectiveness of support ships. Overall, serving women were the most optimistic of those surveyed and most indicated that they would be willing to serve in most of the roles in question. Women's physical capabilities, marital conflict, the emotional suitability of women, and the impact of women on operational effectiveness were perceived to present the most serious challenges (DND, 1978).

In addition to the CF survey, Gallup Canada conducted opinion polls in November 1977 and May 1978 on behalf of the Department of National Defence, regarding the employment of women in active military combat roles. Overall, the responses indicated that more Canadians supported the service of women in all roles than were against the idea in any particular role. Support for women as aircrew was clearly the strongest, while support for women in land combat units was the weakest. Also, a smaller proportion of females than of males were in favour of female employment in combat roles (DND, 1978).

The survey work discussed above is significant as it was the first social science research that was conducted in the post-war CF to explore expanded participation of women in the military. As the discussion below will demonstrate, several of the key findings of this research continued to shape the challenges that were faced in increasing the participation of women as well as the social science research that informed those challenges. This research anticipated the pending proclamation of the Canadian Human Rights Act and laid the groundwork for the research discussed immediately below - that is, the research that was conducted in support of the Servicewomen in Non-Traditional Environments and Roles (SWINTER) trials.

Citing socio-demographic and legal considerations as the rationale for the CF to re-examine policies in reference to the employment of women (Park, 1986), the SWINTER trials were initiated in 1979. The social science research in support of SWINTER was designed to assist the CF in assessing the impact of women's employment on the operational effectiveness of previously all-male units. Specifically, the following assessments, comparisons and measures formed the basis of the SWINTER research:

1) the effectiveness of individual servicewomen versus servicemen for representative work at trial units;

2) the effectiveness of groups of servicewomen, similar groups of servicemen, and integrated groups of women and men when conducting representative work at trial units;

3) the behavioural and sociological impact of servicewomen on trial units, including the sociological impact, on the immediate families of personnel at trial units;

4) the degree of acceptance of the public and our allies for the employment of servicewomen in non-traditional roles and environments; and

5) the resource implications of the expanded participation of servicewomen in the CF (Park, 1986).

The SWINTER research was conducted from 1979 to 1985 at the CF Personnel Applied Research Unit (CFPARU). The research included participant observation at previously all-male units, and questionnaire administration to women and men serving in the SWINTER trial units. The SWINTER trial units included field service support to primary land combat operations, service at sea in a support capacity aboard a non-combatant ship, support to operations at an isolated communications station located above the Arctic Circle, and as aircrew at transport or transport and search-and-rescue squadrons. To conduct the trials, servicewomen were assigned to such units on a trial basis in roles that had previously excluded women (Park, 1986).

As the above measures indicate, the focus of the research conducted during this period was on the ability of women to do the jobs assigned to them, whether men and women would be able to successfully work and live together in previously all-male units, and what the attitudes of servicemen and their spouses would be toward women when they came to work in these units. As the SWINTER title suggests, it was women that were on trial, both in terms of individual performance and the impact that they would have, if any, on groups of previously all-male military units and military families. Overall, this period can be characterized by concern in reference to women's ability to do the job, and the potentially negative impact of women on morale, cohesion, and in turn operational effectiveness.

The social science research on the SWINTER trials sought to understand the full implications of expanding opportunities for servicewomen and concluded that the employment of servicewomen in the new roles under study was feasible. The research produced strong evidence to show that factors other than the actual abilities and performance of servicewomen influenced male attitudes toward women and ultimately the extent of integration achieved (Park, 1984). Consequently, the SWINTER research concluded that the "adoption of a 'business as usual' approach" would not provide sufficient guidance in creating positive integration of women into previously all-male domains. Alternatively, the research suggested that effective integration would be dependent upon leadership shown in such units in addressing real and perceived issues such as compromised selection and training standards, harassment of women, resistance to change, restrictions in range of tasks that supervisors assign women, differences in the physical strength and aggressiveness of women and men, women's fearfulness, emotionality and pregnancy, sexual relationships between men and women who are working together, and rumours of women's homosexuality (Park, 1986) (3).

In 1986, the CF announced that women would be eligible to serve in mixed-gender occupations within seven classes of units within the Regular Force which were previously designated male only: Auxiliary Oil Replenishment Ships; Service Battalions; Field Ambulance Units; Maritime Patrol Squadrons; Maritime Reconnaissance Squadrons; Electronic Warfare Squadrons (Air); and Military Police Platoons. In addition, two previously male-only military occupations were opened to the participation of women: Airborne Electronic Sensor Operator; and, Preventative Medicine Technician (Lamerson, 1987).

The SWINTER trial research conducted between 1979 and 1985 provided valuable information to the above decisions to expand the roles of servicewomen, by highlighting both the ability of women to do the job, and by identifying social issues and organizational processes that could be positively influenced by leadership to enhance the integration of women into new domains. The significant contribution of social science research during this period was acknowledged several years later by the 1989 Canadian Human Rights Commission Tribunal report on gender integration. In regards to decisions related to the future employment of women following the SWINTER trails, it noted that " ... while operational observation and experience were given weight, the importance of psychological and sociological measurements and evaluation was given greater recognition ..." (Canadian Human Rights Commission (CRHC), 1989). The report further notes that, " ... simply put, there was no question raised, as a result of the trials, about the competence of women to perform their assigned duties" (CHRC, 1989). Although women were not assigned combat duties in the SWINTER trials, the trials did provide an opportunity for further policy development and a re-thinking of the ways in which the CF could or should be responsive to changes in social practice and attitudes during the 1980s (CHRC, 1989). In this sense, the stage was set for subsequent expansion of the roles and employment of women in the CF. 1986-1989:

RESPONSE TO THE 1986 CANADIAN FORCES CHARTER TASK FORCE ON EQUALITY

Subsequent to the 1985 Parliamentary Committee on Equality Rights, a 1986 CF Charter Task Force on Equality Issues recommended further expansion of the roles of women in the CF. In addition, the task force recommended that a programme be developed to provide detailed policy guidance and leadership training concerning mixed-gender employment (Robinson, 1988). In 1987, the Minister of National Defence tasked the Department of National Defence with various initiatives related to expanding the employment of women in the CF, including intensified recruiting programs targeting potential female recruits (Lamerson, 1988), and the development of trial options with remaining male-only units and occupations (Lamerson, 1989a; 1989b).

In 1987, the CF Personnel Applied Research Unit (CFPARU) published a literature review of gender integration research, including the SWINTER trial research. The key focus of the literature reviewed was the observed and potential reaction of existing male groups, at the peer, subordinate, and supervisor levels toward the introduction of women into the units within which they were employed. Consequently, the review resulted in several recommendations related to fostering acceptance and awareness of women within previously all-male units and occupations that would receive women (Lamerson, 1987).

In response to the direction from the Minister of National Defence, CFPARU also developed a working plan to monitor the recruitment of women. Phase I of the plan, identified as an equity audit of the current situation, was considered to be complete, as it was evident that men and women had not been given an equal opportunity to apply to the CF, and those inequities could be readily identified. Phase II, a personnel policy audit, and Phase III, an equity audit of the future situation were superceded by activity related to the development of trial options to determine which remaining male-only units and occupations could be opened to women without reducing operational effectiveness (Lamerson, 1989a).

The Combat Related Employment of Women (CREW) trials were designed for the Army and Navy to evaluate mixed- and single-gender combat units and ships to determine if there would be any reduction in operational effectiveness due to the introduction of women (Lamerson, 1989a; 1989b). A CREW trial plan was not developed for the Air Force as there were no formally stated limitations to the employment of women in air units and occupations, although women had not yet been employed in several air units and occupations at that time. In any case, the conduct of the CREW trials were superceded by the 1989 Canadian Human Rights Tribunal decision (discussed in greater detail below) directing that the trials would continue but were not to be regarded as 'trials', but as the lead-up or preparation for full integration of women into all CF occupations and roles (CHRC, 1989).

The social science research conducted during this period continued to place significant focus on the potential negative impact of women on morale, cohesion, and operational effectiveness. This period also witnessed the introduction of concepts and terms, such as equitable treatment and opportunity, which would continue to underlie gender integration and broader equity and diversity issues in the CF, and other organizations in the years to come. The focus within the CF remained almost exclusively on the increased participation of women up until this time. However, as discussed in the following section, employment equity and diversity received increasing attention throughout the 1990s.

1989-1999: RESPONSE TO THE 1989 CANADIAN HUMAN RIGHTS TRIBUNAL RULING

From 1986 to 1988, a Canadian Human Rights Tribunal sat to hear four separate, but related complaints, regarding opportunities for training and employment in the CF. The complaints, submitted to the Canadian Human Rights Commission, in 1981, 1982, 1983 and 1984, concerned denial of a transfer of a female administrative clerk to a regiment that had a 10 percent quota for women, the exclusion of women from risks assumed by men by prohibiting women from flying fighter aircraft, denial of training and employment opportunities for a female as a marine engineering technician, and denial of an employment opportunity for a trained female mechanic in a tactical helicopter squadron, respectively (CHRC, 1989). In the latter case, a settlement was reached before the final Tribunal decision, with the CF acknowledging that the refusal to employ the complainant in a helicopter squadron was due to an administrative error. In response to the remaining cases, the CF did not deny that its existing policies and practices were discriminatory, but contended that they were based upon bona fide occupational requirements, which the organization interpreted as 'operational effectiveness'. The Tribunal decision resulted in direction to the CF to proceed with the full integration of women into all roles and occupations in the following 10-year period.

Prompted by both the decision of the 1989 Canadian Human Rights Tribunal Ruling and to some extent the pending application of the Employment Equity Act to the CF (see Davis, 1996), the '90s' was by far the most active period in terms of research and activity to facilitate the increased participation of women in the military4. Immediately following the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal direction, formal restrictions on the employment of women in the CF were removed, opening the door for women to participate in all roles and occupations with the exception of submarines and Roman Catholic padre5. In February 1990, the Minister of National Defence established a Minister's Advisory Board on Women in the CF (MABWCF), later changed to the Minister's Advisory Board on Gender Integration in the CF (MABGICF), to ensure compliance with the Tribunal direction and to facilitate external monitoring of the integration of women (Tanner, 1990). While the CF addressed many of the recommendations presented in the first four annual reports of the board, by 1995 several recommendations of the board concerning " ... research, leadership and action in basic areas of personnel management and operations ... " remained outstanding (The Minister's Advisory Board on Gender Integration, Apr. 1995).

With the exception of the monitoring conducted by the MABWCF/MABGICF, which included interviews and focus groups, research in the early 1990s was focused primarily on quantitative monitoring of the status of women and psychometric analyses of CF selection tests. From 1988 to 1992, various psychometric analyses were conducted at the CF Personnel Applied Research Unit on tests used for selection into the CF. The purpose of this research was to ensure reliability in selection testing for both women and men. Analysis during this period did reveal test bias disadvantaging women on both officer and non-commissioned member selection tests, and as a result new tests have been developed and validation research is continuously conducted to ensure that the CF is not using selection tools which introduce gender bias (Tanner, 1999). Quantitative analysis was also conducted on the attrition of women and men from the CF (Parker, Farley, and Dellabough, 1993), the family status of women in the CF (Tanner and Walters, 1990), the career progression of women in the CF (Tanner, 1992a), the status of trained women in the CF (Tanner, 1992b), and the impact of downsizing of the CF on women (Tanner, 1999). This research was significant in that it informed the CF that there were issues to be addressed related to the participation of women.

Research that explored and measured the experiences of women in the CF were also introduced in the early 1990s. A qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with women who had left the CF, provided an initial exploratory look at experiences underlying different attrition rates among women and men. It concluded that family obligations and issues related to harassment and discrimination were influencing the attrition of women from the CF (Davis, 1994). Throughout the 1990s the CF also placed considerable focus on harassment. A baseline harassment survey was administered to CF personnel in 1992 (Hansen, 1993), followed by a replication survey in 1998 (Adams-Roy, 1999a). These surveys were significant informants to the development of CF harassment policy and gender integration processes as the results confirmed that women were more likely than men to experience all types of harassment measured (sexual, personal and abuse of authority).

In 1997, additional qualitative research was conducted to determine why the attrition of women from the combat arms was as much as five times greater than the departure rate of men from the combat arms. Focus groups were conducted with serving women and men in the combat arms occupations and combat service support units (Davis, 1997), and in-depth interviews were conducted with women who had left the combat arms (Davis and Thomas, 1998). While the focus group research conducted for this project was very characteristic of research being conducted in the CF at the time (cf., Davis, Thivierge, and Stouffer, 1996), the in-depth interviews and subsequent analysis of the experiences of women represented a significant departure from previous research conducted in support of the participation of women in the CF. The research assumed the right of women to equitable opportunity in the combat arms, rather than questioning the appropriateness of the presence of women in the combat arms environment, thus replicating the spirit of the 1989 Tribunal decision. The numerous recommendations resulting from this research provided direct input into Army gender integration and diversity programs, as well as a broadly distributed Army Lessons Learned publication that focused on leadership in a mixed-gender environment (DND Army Lessons Learned Centre, Sept. 1998).

The mid-1990s and the 1995 employment equity legislation further prompted the CF to broaden equity and human rights research. While exploratory research had been conducted earlier on ethnic attitude formation (Febbraro and Reeves, 1990), and ethnic attitudes toward the CF (Reeves, 1990), a 1995 survey administered to CF members was the first attempt to gather attitudinal information regarding diversity (Cross-Cultural/Multicultural Associates, Inc., 1997). This baseline survey, based upon a survey of multicultural and ethnic attitudes administered to Canadians in 1991 (Kalin and Berry, 1996), did not provide any information that could be linked to issues impacting gender integration. Consequently, the CF developed a 'Mixed Gender Opinion Questionnaire' in 1997 (Davis, 1998), which was subsequently included as a scale in a readministration of the diversity survey in 1999 (see Pike and MacLennan, 2000). This example is significant as it represents a separation of gender and diversity that has influenced research and activity related to gender integration and diversity in the CF. Frequently the number of CF Visible Minority or Aboriginal respondents to a survey is too low to report and/or draw inferences. Further breakdown by Male/Female within these variables would, therefore, be difficult if not impossible. Consequently, reliance on survey data renders issues impacting, for example, Aboriginal or Visible Minority women in the CF, invisible. By the end of the late 1990s, the focus of most human rights and equity research had shifted to employment equity and diversity as the CF worked to satisfy the requirements of the 1995 Employment Equity Act.

As the 1999 10-year milestone for the Tribunal directed integration of women in the CF approached, activity shifted from research to activity around program and planning to demonstrate progress and commitment to the Canadian Human Rights Commission. The environmental commands shared this responsibility, with each presenting a plan for gender integration to the Canadian Human Rights Commission prior to the 1999 decision on CF progress. In addition, the Chief of the Maritime Staff released a research report related to the participation of women in submarines. A substantial research effort integrated a review of archival data, a literature review, site visits, participant observation, consultation with subject matter experts and survey data (Adams-Roy, 1999b), and concluded that there was no sufficient reason to continue to exclude women from submarine service (Bradley, 1999). This research provided substantial input into the subsequent removal of restrictions preventing women from submarine service in the CF, thus opening the door for the participation of women in all environments and roles. In the final analysis, the Canadian Human Rights Commission was not satisfied with the progress that the CF had made in the last ten years; however, it was satisfied that senior leadership was sufficiently committed to gender integration in the future.

2000-PRESENT: POST-CANADIAN HUMAN RIGHTS TRIBUNAL

Since 1989 and the 10-year review of the progress of gender integration in the CF, relatively little research has been conducted on issues impacting women or gender integration in the CF. This can be attributed to several potential influencers. The Employment Equity Act places emphasis on the reporting of representative numbers within each of four designated groups: women, Aboriginal people, visible minorities and persons with disabilities. As women overall are represented in higher numbers than other designated groups, the focus is placed in areas of lowest representation. Given that the actual relative representation of women is low in the CF, quantitative research has limited value and has no practical application to women within the other designated groups. In addition, general acceptance of widely promoted popular literature on changing values in society (see for example Adams, 1997) has lead to conclusions that male or female, you are impacted by the same issues with little recognition of inequitable impact and outcome. This has become a commonly held perception which renders gender as 'neutral' territory within the CF (see Davis, 2001). An argument has also been forwarded suggesting that an increasing emphasis (due to current geo-political events) on a warrior framework or combat masculine war-fighting model undermines the participation of women in the military (Davis and McKee, Oct. 2001).

Several of the issues noted above have been identified in a strategic human resource document calling for clear direction on the future of women in the CF (Davis, 2001). In addition, a preliminary look at gender-based analysis as a research tool suggests that an analysis of issues potentially impacting a diversity of women could be integrated into all research (see Davis, 2002). Research on leadership in the CF has directed some attention to issues impacting women as leaders. A pending report on women and leadership in the combat arms, for example, builds upon the research conducted on the experience of women in the combat arms in 1997 and 1998, with a particular focus on their experience as leaders (Febbraro, in press). Finally, a review of issues impacting full gender integration in elite ground combat units in Canada raises significant issues related to cultural and social barriers which continue to impact the participation of women in the combat arms (Pinch, 2002). With the exception of the Febbraro analysis, which is based upon the experiences of women gathered through in-depth interviews, the research conducted since 1999 is secondary research reviewing past literature or calling for renewed commitment to gender integration in the CF. Most frequently, this type of research requires fewer resources and is dependent upon the initiatives of individuals in raising issues, rather than the commitment of the organization in acknowledging the issues and requesting research to inform improved policy and practice within the military. In this sense, the period following the 1999 10-year review of gender integration represents a significant void in research to support continued integration of women in the CF. Suggestions for the development of a research framework in support of continued and full integration of women are presented in the closing discussion below.

SUMMARY

Beginning with the proclamation of the Canadian Human Rights Act in 1978, this paper has moved through four periods representing CF response to socio-legal milestones in Canada. Reflecting the concerns of the organization, the research conducted in the late 70s and early 80s was clearly about women and the potential negative impact that they might have on operational effectiveness. Opinion surveys prevailed, soon supplemented by participant observation of women and men working together in operational military units. The reported results of such research, as well as the decision of the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal in 1989, had a significant influence on decisions to proceed with trials of women in combat units. Throughout the 80s, equitable treatment and equitable opportunities for women increasingly impacted the questions that research was addressing, culminating with research in the 1990s that assumed that women had the ability to do the job and indeed had a right to equitable opportunity and fair treatment. Throughout all periods, survey research has been used as a primary research tool, supplemented by participant observation, focus groups and most recently in-depth interviews with women. Finally, the evidence clearly suggests that research agendas within the organization are heavily influenced by national legislation. While it is assumed that women are participants in the CF of the future, it is also widely assumed that gender integration is no longer an issue. As a result, significant organizational commitment to the increased and full participation of women in a full range of roles and organizational processes is not evident.

As we face increasingly complex defence demands, the CF has moved firmly into an era of strategic planning, transformation, cultural change, and a myriad of new acronyms and operating constructs. All members of the CF - regardless of sex, gender, sexual orientation, ethnic and cultural background - have a role to play in the strategy for change and continuous adaptation. It is widely accepted that Canadian defence objectives will most effectively be met with the full participation of a demographically diverse Canadian society - not just in terms of numbers, but in terms of full participation and integration into all organizational processes. The increasing integration of women into all organizational environments, roles and processes will increasingly become reliant upon a greater awareness of the intersection of diversity and gender and the related impact on participation in the military. Just as the military has traditionally relied upon a predominantly Caucasian male recruitment base, the increasing participation of women in the CF has disproportionately relied upon Caucasian female participation. Future research, then, must move beyond the framework of employment equity and bring gender back into diversity, as well as move gender out of the past and into the future of the CF.

END NOTES

(1) Includes the ranks of Major, Lieutenant Colonel, and Colonel as well as the naval equivalent ranks of Lieutenant-Commander, Commander and Captain Navy).

(2) Includes the ranks of Sergeant, Warrant Officer, Master Warrant Officer and Chief Warrant Officer as well as the naval equivalent ranks of Petty Officer 2nd Class, Petty Officer 1st Class, Chief Petty Officer 2nd Class and Chief Petty Officer 1st Class.

(3) By 1992, the courts in Canada had held that Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms protected equality on the basis of sexual orientation. In 1993 restrictions and barriers related to sexual orientation were removed from CF regulations, and in 1996 the Canadian Human Rights Act was amended to include sexual orientation as a prohibited ground of discrimination under Section 15 of the Act (http:// www.chrc-ccdp.ca/discrimination/sexual_orientation-en.asp).

(4) Bill C-64, an Act respecting Employment Equity, received Royal Assent in the House of Commons in December 1995, creating a new legislated framework, which included the CF. However, the Act did not apply to the CF until the Canadian Forces Employment Equity Regulations were approved by the Governor-in-Council. The CF received approval for special Canadian Forces Employment Equity Regulations 21 November 2002, and is now officially governed by the Act and subject to Canadian Human Rights Commission compliance audit.

(5) The prohibited participation of women in the role of Roman Catholic padre was (and continues to be) a religious exclusion mandated by the Roman Catholic Religion and not by the CF.

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Karen D. Davis *

Canadian Forces Leadership Institute

Royal Military College of Canada

* The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of several colleagues: Major Pat Hurley, Canadian Forces Directorate of Military Gender Integration and Employment Equity for providing access to current CF demographic data; Dr. Franklin Pinch, Canadian Forces Leadership Institute for clarification of corporate processes; and Dr. Phyllis Browne, Canadian Forces Leadership Institute for review and comment on an early draft of this paper. The analysis presented in this paper is that of the author and does not represent the views of the Canadian Forces or the Department of National Defence. The author accepts full responsibility for any inaccuracies in the interpretation and presentation of data. Comments concerning this article may be addressed to: Karen Davis, Canadian Forces Leadership Institute, Royal Military College of Canada, P.O. Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, K7K 7B4 (email: Karen.davis@rmc.ca).

KAREN DAVIS is a Defence Scientist recently transferred to the Canadian Forces Leadership Institute in Kingston, Ontario. As a Canadian Forces staff officer, research officer, civilian scientist, and member of the Defence Women's Advisory Organization, she has researched and published in several areas related to social change in the Canadian Forces including the attrition of women and Aboriginal people, family support policy, gender integration and most recently, strategic human resources. She is currently the team leader for the development of a strategic leadership manual for senior officers in the Canadian Forces, and an edited volume integrating issues impacting leadership in the military.