This study examines the guidance role of the instructor in the teaching and learning process. The paper x-rays the need for the learners to be consciously guided by their teachers as this facilitates and complements the learning process. Gagne's theory of conditions of learning, phases of learning and model tot design of instruction was adopted to explain the guidance role of the instructor in the learning process. The paper recommends that the teacher should not only have knowledge of the subject matter but should also guide and direct the learning process through application of appropriate learning theories
According to Akinboye (1986),Educational Psychology is conceptualized as an applied psychology in which psychological principles are used to bring about positive changes in the learner, the teacher, teaching strategies, the learning process, the learning situation, curriculum and the assessment of learning. Educational Psychology and Counseling Psychology are under the big umbrella of psychology. Counseling psychology is a specialized area and an applied psychology, which aims at bringing out the best attributes of the individual learner. Counseling is a service under the guidance program. Guidance is a broad term, which subsumes counseling. For the purpose of this paper, the term 'Guidance' can be defined as assistance given to the learner by the instructor in order to facilitate his achievement in the learning process.
Guidance has been severally defined as the assistance given to individuals to enable them make independent and adequate choices, decisions and adjustments in life. According to Mkpa (1989), Guidance is a program of service intended to help students acquire the capacity for self direction or self guidance. From the foregoing, the instructor is expected to perform some guidance roles while teaching consciously or unconsciously. The major aim of teaching is to impart knowledge, practical skills and understanding to the learner. Teaching therefore can be viewed as a intentional activity aimed at inducing learning. The teacher's priority is to meet the individual student educational needs. The dictionary of Education (Good 1973) defined the teacher/instructor as a person employed in an official capacity for the purpose of guiding and directing learning experiences of pupils or students in an educational institution whether public or private.
The National and Policy on Education (NPE, 2004), rightly stated that Guidance Counseling should feature in teacher education programs. This gives every teacher some background knowledge on how to carry out the guidance role while teaching. Guidance should be a continuous process throughout life but it should be introduced early in life during the formative years when habits, attitudes and behaviors are being developed such preventive guidance reduces remedial guidance later, Guidance is known to be preventive in function while Counseling is curative. If proper guidance is given to the child there may not be the need for specialized counseling which often occurs as a result of maladjustment and underachievement. Guidance program which provides students with information, skill and necessary services in the early school years has been found to be effective in preventing problems from occurring later in school years (Bergin et al; 1990; Gerler, 1985)This paper therefore examines the guidance role of the instructor in the teaching and learning process with a view to laying emphasis on the need to consciously guide the learners as this complements and facilitates the teaching and learning process.
The Teaching and Learning Process
For efficient and effective teaching and learning to take place and for the realization of the objectives of the process, the instructor needs to guide the learners. Guidance in the classroom has been described as "teaching at its best". The teacher as a guide also demonstrates some leadership roles which have their impact on the learners behavior. …