The purpose of this study was to re-validate a former study about the importance and validity of FEASP-emotions and related measurements. Data were collected from 654 Polish high school students and 147 teachers of 14 secondary schools. Results showed that emotions and especially FEASP-emotions (fear, envy, anger, sympathy, and pleasure) were important in daily instruction and that they were measured with high reliability. Gender differences also illustrated some predictive validity.
Keywords: instructional design, affective education, emotional intelligence, measurement, motivation
Emotional processes were not prominently anchored within the focus of Instructional Psychology so far. However, Astleitner (2000) presented a theory-based approach of how emotions can be integrated in daily instruction. Within the so-called FEASP-approach, 20 instructional strategies were presented to decrease negative emotions (fear, envy, and anger) and to increase positive emotions (sympathy and pleasure). The FEASP-approach was formulated for traditional instruction, but also for computer-based learning environments (Astleitner & Leutner, 2000). Furthermore, for measuring the importance and the effects of the FEASP-approach, an instrument- based on a questionnaire--was developed and validitated within an Austrian sample of high school teachers and university students (Astleitner, 2001). The purpose of this study was to re-validate the findings of the Austrian study within a sample of Polish secondary education teachers and students and to explore gender differences in FEASP-related emotions during instruction. Such differences are expected because females experience other emotions in comparison to males during instruction (based on different concepts of academic self-efficacy, self-understanding, and self-regulation) (e.g., Halpern, 2000).
For this study, data were gathered from n=654 Polish high school students and n=147 high school teachers in 28 classes in 14 secondary schools in six cities located in the south-west part of Poland. The sample of students showed an average age of 18 years. Slightly more than half (52,1%) of the students were males. The school teacher sample consisted of 107 females and 40 males. Teachers were asked to take part in the study during private meetings in the schools by research assistants. Research assistants conducted their studies as part of a bachelor's degree program.
Both, teachers and students had to answer a questionnaire including the following issues:
* General importance of emotions during instruction. Teachers and students were asked to select one of the seven items depicted in Table 1. The items were ranked on a dimension from low ("emotions are not important ...") to high (emotions are more important than anything else ...") importance.
* Different types of emotions. The question "Which students emotions should teachers consider during instruction?" was presented to teachers. Students were asked about which of their emotions should be coped with by the course instructor. Both, teachers and students were requested to state at least five different types of emotions.
* FEASP-emotions. Students had to state how often ("never, "1-5 times", "6-10 times", "more than 10 times") they experienced the five FEASP-emotions (fear, envy, anger, sympathy, and pleasure) during the course they were attending for the last two weeks. Each of the FEASP-emotions was measured with 8 items which were formulated by considering the definitions of the emotions elaborated within the FEASP-approach (Astleitner, 2000). Fear was measured with items such as "I had fear of failure" or "I was physically and mentally tensed up". Envy was measured with items such as "I found myself discriminated in comparison with other people" or "I was jealous". For measuring anger, items like "I was in rage about other people" or "I was aggressive" were used. …