Academic journal article Journal of Environmental Health

Five-Year Surveillance of West Nile and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Viruses in Southeastern Virginia

Academic journal article Journal of Environmental Health

Five-Year Surveillance of West Nile and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Viruses in Southeastern Virginia

Article excerpt

* An enhanced arbovirus and mosquito surveillance program began in southeastern Virginia in 2000.

* The area is characterized by both urban and wetland ecologies.

* It is the home of the Great Dismal Swamp, migratory and permanent bird sanctuaries, and the largest U.S. naval base.

* The wetlands provide an ideal place for mosquito breeding.

* The bird sanctuaries provide an abundance of hosts for the mosquitoes to feed upon.

* The large Navy installation may be an attractive target for bioterrorism.

* Easter equine encephalitis (EEE) is classified as a select agent for bioterrorism.

* Mosquito pools were monitored to determine the occurrence of West Nile virus (WNV) and EEE in the environment.

* Only one WNV-infected mosquito pool was detected in 2001, in September.

* Peak WNV activity occurred in August in 2003 and 2004 and in October in 2002.

* Peak EEE activity was observed in July in three years--2001, 2003, and 2004.

* In 2004, the EEE activity extended into November.

* Overall, Culiseta (Cs.) melanura and Culex (Cx.) pipiens were the primary vectors for EEE and WNV.

* The bridge vectors Cx. salinarius, Aedes vexans, and Anopheles crucians also contributed to arboviral activity.

* In 2004, WNV infection in Cx. …

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