Academic journal article School Psychology Review

The Use of Reading and Behavior Screening Measures to Predict Nonresponse to School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: A Longitudinal Analysis

Academic journal article School Psychology Review

The Use of Reading and Behavior Screening Measures to Predict Nonresponse to School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: A Longitudinal Analysis

Article excerpt

Abstract. This study involved a longitudinal analysis of academic skills and problem behavior through elementary school. The purposes of the study were (a) to explore the interactions between reading skills and problem behavior, and (b) to determine the value of regular screening assessments in predicting which students would not respond to school-wide behavior support in fifth grade. The participants were elementary school students who entered kindergarten in 1998 and completed fifth grade in a school district with school-wide reading and behavior support systems. Analyses consisted of logistic regressions to predict the number of discipline contacts in fifth grade. Results indicated that both reading and behavior variables (including kindergarten reading variables) significantly predicted the number of discipline referrals received in fifth grade. Results are discussed in terms of determining pathways to problem behavior and implications for a combined approach to academic and behavior problems.

**********

Recent research related to the prevention of problem behavior in schools has shown that the signs of antisocial behavior emerge as early as school entry in kindergarten (Hamre & Pianta, 2001; Walker et al., 1998). School personnel attempting to avert negative behavioral trajectories for students face a heightened sense of urgency; research indicates that both academic and behavioral interventions increasingly lose effectiveness after third grade (Juel, 1988; Kazdin, 1987; Walker & Severson, 1992). Knowing this information highlights the importance of detecting students who need additional support before the third grade and delivering interventions early in elementary school to avert more severe challenges (Good, Simmons, & Kame'enui, 2001; O'Shaughnessy, Lane, Gresham, & Beebe-Frankenberger, 2003; Sugai & Homer, 2002). With ever-dwindling resources, increasing caseloads, and increasing public scrutiny on outcomes, school personnel stand to benefit from taking a systems-level approach to improving academics and school safety (Shapiro, 2000; Walker et al., 1996).

A three-tiered model of prevention and intervention, as described by Walker and colleagues (1996), is one example of a school-wide system of effective academic and/or behavioral practices. In the model, universal interventions promote success for most students and serve as a foundation for providing additional support to students with more intense needs (Sugai, Horner, & Gresham, 2002). Three-tiered systems are based on a set of principles: (a) providing all students with universal interventions, (b) screening students to determine needed services, and (c) delivering a continuum of services matched to the level of support indicated by screening and assessment. Such a model has been adapted to school-based programs by a number of researchers focused on behavior change (Horner, Sugai, Todd, & Lewis-Palmer, 2005; Lane & Menzies, 2003; Nelson, Martella, & Marchand-Martella, 2002; Sprick, Sprick, & Garrison, 1992) and academic improvement (Kame'enui & Carnine, 1998; Vaughn, Linan-Thompson, & Hickman, 2003).

Delivering school-wide, universal behavioral interventions to all students is proving to be an efficient and effective method of providing a base level of support for students and reducing overall problem behavior in schools (Lewis & Sugai, 1999; Metzler, Biglan, Rusby, & Sprague, 2001; Scott, 2001; Taylor-Greene et al., 1997). Nevertheless, not all students will respond to universal interventions, and accordingly, key tasks for school psychologists and other personnel include identifying and providing interventions to nonresponders. By the time these students are identified as nonresponsive, they may have experienced a rich history of reinforcement for problem behavior (e.g., social attention or escape from academic demands), making further successful intervention more difficult (though still important and possible). …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.