Academic journal article International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship

Analysing the Effects of Advertising Type and Antecedents on Attitude towards Advertising in Sport

Academic journal article International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship

Analysing the Effects of Advertising Type and Antecedents on Attitude towards Advertising in Sport

Article excerpt

Abstract

This paper examines the effects of advertising type and antecedents of attitude towards advertising in general (AG) on individuals' responses to advertising in a sports broadcast setting. Both AG antecedents and advertising type were assessed using Brackett and Carr's (2001) model. Our results indicate that individual responses to advertising vary according to the type of advertising (television commercials, virtual ads by location).

Keywords

virtual advertising

virtual signage

advertising effectiveness

electronic billboards

sport signage

Executive summary

The attitude towards advertising (AG) construct has been the focus of several investigations in marketing literature, in part because of the suggestion that it is an antecedent to additional variables affecting consumers (Mittal, 1994; O'Donohoe, 1995; Pollay & Mittal, 1993; Zanot, 1981, 1984). Several authors have provided conceptual frameworks indicating the importance of the AG construct in relation to other important marketing variables (Bauer & Greyser, 1968; Brackett & Carr, 2001; Ducoffe, 1996; Shavitt et al, 1998). The purpose of this study was to analyse the perceptual antecedents of AG via television commercials and virtual advertising to compare the two media vehicles in a sports broadcast setting. The study investigates attitude towards virtual advertising and television commercials using Brackett and Carr's (2001) model, with its perceptual antecedents (entertainment, informativeness, irritation and credibility) as independent variables.

Virtual advertising, also known as virtual signage and/or electronic billboards, is a technology that allows digitised superimposition of images (i.e. advertising signage) into a television broadcast (Burgi, 1997; Cianfrone et al, 2006; Lefton, 1997; Turner & Cusumano, 2000). The technology, which allows those watching a broadcast to view a digitally inserted image (e.g. logo, signage, object related to the brand etc.) that is not viewable to those in attendance at the event but only viewable for those watching the broadcast. Because of the differences between TV advertising and virtual advertising, we hypothesised that responses to advertising should vary by type (TV advertising vs virtual advertising by location).

However, when comparing TV advertising with virtual ads, the location of the virtual ads is an important consideration. For example, although TV advertising might be more intrusive and entertaining than virtual ads, how intrusive and entertaining virtual ads are might depend on the location of virtual ads. Therefore, we expect responses to advertising to have an interaction effect between type of advertising and antecedents.

Our stimulus for this study was a 40 minute video segment from a televised 2001 Southeastern Conference (SEC) football game. In collaboration with the authors of this investigation, Princeton Video Image, Inc. digitally inserted virtual advertisements into a videotaped segment of an intercollegiate football game. Research participants (N = 193) were undergraduate and graduate students located at a large university in the south-eastern United States. The majority of the respondents were Caucasians (83%), with nearly equal distribution of males (52%) and females (48%).

Our findings indicate that individual responses to advertising vary according to the type of advertising (television commercials, virtual ads by location). The results show that a) television commercials were perceived as being more entertaining, informative and irritating, and less credible, than virtual advertisements regardless of location, and b) virtual advertisement with logo ads above/below the score display had a significant lower mean score across the antecedents compared to the other advertisement types.

An interesting finding is that virtual advertisement with logo ads above/below the score display were perceived as less entertaining, informative and irritating, and more credible, than any other type of advertisement. …

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