Academic journal article Journal of International Business Research

Effect of Manifest Needs, Religiosity and Selected Demographics on Hard Working: An Empirical Investigation in Turkey

Academic journal article Journal of International Business Research

Effect of Manifest Needs, Religiosity and Selected Demographics on Hard Working: An Empirical Investigation in Turkey

Article excerpt

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of different facets of manifest needs (i.e. need for achievement, need for power and need for affiliation), religiosity and some demographic characteristics on hard working. Data were collected from a sample of 211 Turkish MBA and other business- related graduate students from 7 different universities in three cities: Istanbul, Kocaeli and Ankara. Results showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between hard working and the need for achievement (nAch) and also between hard working and religiosity. Any connection, however, between hard working and need for affiliation (nAff) or between hard working and need for power (nPow) could not be found. The research also displayed that nAch is a factor that has a positive impact on women but not men, and there is no significant correlation between age and all the other variables. In addition to this, it was found that single people have a significantly higher level of nAff compared with married people, and people born and living in rural regions have a significantly higher amount of religiosity than people from urban regions. The implications are discussed.

Key words: PWE, hard working, manifest needs, need for achievement (nAch), need for power (nPow), need for affiliation (nAff) and religiosity.

INTRODUCTION

Despite a great deal of interest in the topic of Protestant work ethic there is a lack of clarity in the organizational behavior literature on just how much a high level of hard working can be identified with a dimension of PWE. From a management point of view, PWE can be perceived as a cultural input into an organizational structure which can affect companies' values, norms and their effectiveness (Arslan, 2000). Individuals with a high work ethic tend to work very hard (Tang & Baumeister, 1984) and to seek to be as diligent as possible in all aspects of their careers: they will therefore be very productive workers (Weber, 1958). PWE adherents clearly regard hard work as meaningful, worthwhile and rewarding. Persons without a strong work ethic, on the other hand, will possibly be lazy, unethical and suffer from a weakness of character. At macro level, an absence of hard work brings social problems (Mudrack, 1999).

The evident importance of the work ethic inspired the researcher to investigate the question of whether some personal traits--McClelland's manifest needs (focuses on three categories of needs, viz "Achievement", "Power" and "Affliation"), religiosity and some demographic variables (e.g. gender, age, marital status, place of birth and residence)--are useful predictors of hard working. McClelland's theory of needs suggests that individuals may have varied levels of the above needs. This variation motivates them to pursue one goal instead of another. The major aim of this research is to find an answer to the question "What kind of people will have the stronger hard working orientation?".

In order to test the above question, three cities (Istanbul, Ankara and Kocaeli) were selected from one country-Turkey. Data were collected from a sample of MBA and other business-related graduate students from 7 different universities located in these three cities. Results showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between hard working and need for achievement (nAch) and also between hard working and religiosity.

The study is organized as follows: the next section reviews the relevant literature on PWE, hard working and manifest needs. The third section introduces the focus of this article, and formulates hypotheses. Tests of these hypotheses are described in the fourth section. After an explanation of the methodology, empirical findings are presented: the paper ends with a discussion of the research findings, its limitations and recommendations for future research and practical implications.

THE PROTESTANT WORK ETHIC (PWE)

Examination of the theoretical foundation of the work ethic construct makes it necessary to look at the translation of Weber's original work. …

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