Academic journal article Education & Treatment of Children

Active Supervision: An Intervention to Reduce High School Tardiness

Academic journal article Education & Treatment of Children

Active Supervision: An Intervention to Reduce High School Tardiness

Article excerpt

Abstract

One proactive approach to aid in reducing disciplinary problems in schools is implementing Positive Behavior Support (PBS) strategies. To successfully implement PBS school-wide, Sugai and Horner (2002a) emphasize a multi-systems perspective, which focuses on school-wide discipline, classroom management, non-classroom settings, and individual students. According to Nelson, Smith, and Colvin (1995) approximately 50% of problem behaviors resulting in discipline referrals occur in non-classroom settings (e.g., hallway, cafeteria). One intervention commonly utilized in non-classroom settings is active supervision. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of active supervision on the hallway behavior (i.e., tardies) of students in a rural high school using a multiple baseline across instructional periods. The results show that active supervision decreased frequency of tardies across instructional periods. Also, each active supervision component was assessed, suggesting that all components may not be essential in obtaining student behavior change. Implications and future research are also discussed.

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Currently, public schools are under increased scrutiny to improve student, classroom, school, and district outcomes (Putnam, Handler, Rey, & McCarty, 2005). Although the scrutiny includes academic as well as behavioral domains, the problems with discipline continue to increase and are considered a leading concern facing schools and educators (Putnam et al., 2005; Safran, 2006). Thus, maintaining discipline in the schools has increasingly become a greater priority (Baer, Cavalier, & Manning, 2002).

School-wide positive behavior support (PBS) systems have been implemented in many elementary and middle schools to aid in the reduction of discipline problems (Colvin, Sugai, Good, & Lee, 1997; Lewis, Sugai, & Colvin, 1998; Oswald, Safran, & Johanson, 2005; Sugai & Horner, 2002a). PBS incorporates a wide range of universal and individualized strategies developed for use with all students to achieve important social and learning outcomes while concurrently preventing problem behaviors (Sugai & Horner, 2002b). PBS is also designed to prevent problem behavior by altering the educational environment while also teaching appropriate alternatives (Safran & Oswald, 2003; Walker, Cheney, Stage, & Blum, 2005). According to Warren et al. (2003), school-wide supports promote a positive climate within a school by changing the focus from solely utilizing punitive approaches to using more positive approaches that acknowledge and support appropriate behavior.

To successfully implement PBS school-wide, Sugai and Horner (2002a) emphasize a multi-systems perspective requiring the integration of four levels of implementation: (a) school-wide discipline, (b) classroom management, (c) non-classroom settings, and (d) individual students. Although integrating these four levels is essential when implementing PBS school-wide, assessing the effectiveness of individual interventions implemented at each level is also critical. For example, two antecedent strategies often implemented to reduce problem behavior are active supervision and pre-correction. Sugai and Horner (2002a) define active supervision by three steps: (a) scanning, defined as examining the area for rule followers and violators; (b) moving, defined as consistently traveling around the location, especially in areas where problems are more likely to occur (e.g., groups of students); and (c) interacting, defined as initiating brief prosocial interactions with students.

Pre-correction is defined as an antecedent intervention that aims to reduce predictable problem behaviors and increase appropriate replacement behaviors through the daily review of setting specific rules prior to being released into that setting (Colvin et al., 1997). The objective of pre-correction is to cue the student to engage in a more appropriate behavior before the problem behavior ever occurs. …

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