Academic journal article Literator: Journal of Literary Criticism, comparative linguistics and literary studies

Traces of Migration and Loss in Krzysztof Kleslowski's Three Colours trilogy/Spore Van Migrasie En Verlies in Krzysztof Kieslowski Se Three Colours Trilogy (1)

Academic journal article Literator: Journal of Literary Criticism, comparative linguistics and literary studies

Traces of Migration and Loss in Krzysztof Kleslowski's Three Colours trilogy/Spore Van Migrasie En Verlies in Krzysztof Kieslowski Se Three Colours Trilogy (1)

Article excerpt

Abstract

Traces of migration and loss in Krzysztof Kleslowski's Three colours trilogy

This article will focus on Krzysztof Kieslowski's "Three colours trilogy", technically a French-Polish-Swiss co-production. Kieslowski lived in the West while filming the trilogy and therefore the theme of migration can be linked to the director as well as to the films. Kieslowski's condition, however, is not a condition of exile but rather a state of being betwixt-and-between, a hybrid composed of past and present places (Poland and Western Europe). The transition from one space to another can also be identified as a threshold experience: it is an experience of loss of all that has gone before, of absence of both before and after, of anxiety generated by less and uncertainty, and of desire, which arises from the lack which arose from these experiences. Kieslowski's personal transition and liminal state bring forth the themes and style of the trilogy. The characters also find themselves in transition between two worlds; they live as emigres of the imagination, conveying the feeling of being both part and not part of their personal world. Each character, in different ways, tries to cope with the loss: Julie in "Blue" through a threshold fixation, Karol in "White", through wrathful revenge, and Kern in "Red", through the strategy of disavowal.

Opsomming

Spore van migrasie en verlies in Krzysztof Kieslowski se Three colours trilogy

Hierdie artikel fokus op Krzysztof Kieslowski se "Three colours trilogy", tegnies 'n Frans-Pools-Switserse ko-produksie. Tydens die verfilming van die trilogie het Kieslowski in die Weste gewoon en gevolglik kan die tema van migrasie aan die regisseur, sowel as die films geknoop word. Kieslowski se posisie in Europa is egter nie die van ballingskap, of selfs van volwaardige migrasie nie, maar eerder 'n tussentoestand, op die spanningslyn tussen plekke van die verlede en van die hede, naamlik Pole en Europa. Die oorgang van een ruimte na 'n volgende kan bestempel word as 'n drempelervaring: dit is 'n ervaring van verlies van alles wat voorafgegaan hei, van afwesigheid van sowel vantevore as later, van angs wat gegeneer word deur die verlies en onsekerheid en van begeerte, as gevolg van die gerais wat ontstaan hei. Kieslowski se persoonlike verplasing en liminale staat het die temas en styl van die trilogie tot gevolg. Die karalders bevind hulself ook in transito tussen twee werelde; hulle leef as migrante van die verbeelding, en kommunikeer die gevoel van sowel deel as nie deel wees nie van hulle kultuur. Elkeen probeer op 'n persoonlike manier die ervaring van verlies verwerk: Julie in "Blue" deur 'n drempelfiksasie, Karol in "White" deur woedende wraak en Kern in "Red" deur die strategie van ontkenning.

I. Inleiding

Literere en filmtekste is dikwels nie net gewortel in die tydsgees nie, maar reflekteer ook daardie tydsgees en ooglopende tendense en veranderings in die samelewing. Die grootskaalse beweging van mense oor landsgrense is onder andere so 'n wereldwye tendens en een van die belangrikste eienskappe sowel as kulturele kragte van ons tyd. Die titel van Castles en Miller (1998) se boek, The age of migration: international population movements in the modern world, reflekteer alreeds die tydsgees. Arfar Brah (1996:178) onderskryf hierdie opvatting met die stelling dat daar aan die einde van die twintigste eeu en die begin van die 21ste eeu 'n toename in migrasie rondom die aardbol is. Die redes vir hierdie bewegings is talryk, en sluit in persoonlike en akademiese redes, politieke redes (wat gedwonge verskuiwing en ballingskap insluit), religieuse redes, ekonomiese redes (insluitend die kwessie van gasarbeiders) en interverwisselinge as gevolg van koloniale geskiedenis. Migrasie as demografiese fenomeen is egter nie by uitstek 'n kontemporere verskynsel nie. Peters (1999:17) bring as voorbeeld die begrip ballingskap met die tema van mens-in-beweging in verband, en maak die volgende relevante stelling:

   Concepts of mobility lie at the heart of the Western canon;
   otherness wanders through its center. … 
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