Academic journal article Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science

Characterization of [PM.Sub.2.5] and Conversion Rate of Sulfur Dioxide to Sulfate in Inland Areas of Taiwan

Academic journal article Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science

Characterization of [PM.Sub.2.5] and Conversion Rate of Sulfur Dioxide to Sulfate in Inland Areas of Taiwan

Article excerpt

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the sulfur conversion rate and the characterization of [PM.sub.2.5] particulate matter and acidic gases in inland Taiwan region. The measurements were taken at two different sites located near the fossil fuel power plant in central Taiwan. First site was Wufong and the other site was Nantou, which is located 15 km south from Wufong. [PM.sub.2.5] and gaseous acids were measured by annular denuder system. [PM.sub.2.5] ionic species including S[O.sub.4.sup.2-], N[O.sub.3.sup.-], N[H.sub.4.sup.+], [Cl.sup.-], [Ca.sup.2+], [K.sup.+], [Na.sup.+], and [H.sup.+] and gaseous HN[O.sub.3] and HCl were analyzed. Results showed that the average ratio of [PM.sub.2.5] and S[O.sub.4.sup.2-] was higher during daytime, probably due to the anthropogenic activities. Wind field map also clearly displayed that Wufong was located upwind and Nantou was located downwind during daytime. Sulfur conversion ratio in the downwind site was higher than upwind site. Experimental data showed that sulfur conversion rate between these sites was 5%-9% [h.sup.-1]. The increased [PM.sub.2.5] and S[O.sub.2] concentrations recorded in the Nantou site were from the direction of Taichung city during daytime.

Key words: [PM.sub.2.5], sulfate, sulfur conversion rate, pollutant roses.

Resume : Le but de cette etude etait d'examiner le taux de conversion des sulfures et la caracterisation des particules [PM.sub.2.5] et des gaz acides dans la partie interieure de Taiwan. Les mesures ont ete prises a deux differents endroits situes pres de la centrale a combustible fossile dans le centre de Taiwan. Le premier site etait Wufong et l'autre Nantou, qui est situe a 15 km au sud de Wufong. Les [PM.sub.2.5] et les acides gazeux ont ete mesures au moyen d'un denudeur annulaire (rien trouve sur le Web). Les [PM.sub.2.5] ioniques comprenaient S[O.sub.4.sup.2-], N[O.sub.3.sup.-], N[H.sub.4.sup.+], [Cl.sup.-], [Ca.sup.2+], [K.sup.+], [Na.sup.-] et [H.sup.-] et le HN[O.sup.3] et le HCl gazeux ont ete analyses. Les resultats montrent que le rapport moyen de [PM.sub.2.5] et S[O.sub.4.sup.2-] etait plus eleve durant le jour, probablement en raison des activites humaines. Une carte des vents affichait aussi clairement que Wufong etait situee en amont et que Nantou etait situee sous le vent durant le jour. Le taux de conversion du sulfure dans le site sous le vent etait superieur que celui du site en amont. Les donnees experimentales ont montre que le taux de conversion du sulfure entre ces sites etait de 5 a 9 % par heure. Les concentrations superieures en [PM.sub.2.5] et en S[O.sub.2] enregistrees au site de Nantou provenaient d'en direction de la ville de Taichung durant le jour.

Mots-cles : [PM.sub.2.5], sulfure, taux de conversion du sulfure, roses de pollution.

[Traduit par la Redaction]


The primary constituents of particulate matter in the ambient air are mainly particles emitted from industry, vehicular exhaust, and other human activities, while the secondary constituents, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonia nitrate are formed either by the homogenous or heterogeneous reaction with their precursor sulfur dioxide, gas-phase ammonia (N[H.sub.3]), and oxides of nitrogen. Fine particles of [PM.sub.2.5] (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 [micro]m) are known to cause health hazards and reduction in visibility (Seaton et al. 1995; Wolff et al. 1982; Tsai and Cheng 1999). The major fraction of P[M.sub.10] (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 [micro]m) was [PM.sub.2.5] in Taiwan (Chen et al. 1999; Tsai and Cheng 1999; Fang et al. 2002; Lin 2002). The main water soluble components of [PM.sub.2.5] were sulfate, nitrate, and ammonia in central Taiwan (Tsai and Cheng 2004).

Two major fossil fuel power plants are located in the central Taiwan region. The Gaussian plume trajectory model showed that these two point sources contribute to about 70% of S[O. …

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