Academic journal article International Journal of Yoga

Effect of Yogic Exercise on Super Oxide Dismutase Levels in Diabetics

Academic journal article International Journal of Yoga

Effect of Yogic Exercise on Super Oxide Dismutase Levels in Diabetics

Article excerpt

Byline: Hemant. Mahapure, Sanjay. Shete, T. Bera

Context : Reactive oxygen species are known to aggravate disease progression. To counteract their harmful effects, the body produces various antioxidant enzymes, viz , superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase etc. Literature reviews revealed that exercises help to enhance antioxidant enzyme systems; hence, yogic exercises may be useful to combat various diseases. Aims : This study aims to record the efficacy of yoga on superoxide dismutase, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb) and fasting blood glucose levels in diabetics. Settings and Design: Forty diabetics aged 40-55 years were assigned to experimental (30) and control (10) groups. The experimental subjects underwent a Yoga program comprising of various Asanas (isometric type exercises) and Pranayamas (breathing exercises) along with regular anti-diabetic therapy whereas the control group received anti-diabetic therapy only. Materials and Methods : Heparinized blood samples were used to determine erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glycosylated Hb levels and fasting blood specimens collected in fluoride Vacutainers were used for assessing blood glucose. Statistical Analysis Used : Data were analyzed by using 2 x 2 x 3 Factorial ANOVA followed by Scheffe's posthoc test. Results : The results revealed that Yogic exercise enhanced the levels of Superoxide dismutase and reduced glycosylated Hb and glucose levels in the experimental group as compared to the control group. Conclusion : The findings conclude that Yogic exercises have enhanced the antioxidant defence mechanism in diabetics by reducing oxidative stress.

A major internal threat to the cellular homeostasis of aerobic organisms arises from free radical intermediates and the byproducts generated from oxygen metabolism. The paradox of aerobic life is that aerobic organisms cannot exist without oxygen and yet oxygen happens to be inherently dangerous to their very existence. This is because ironically, these reactive oxygen species (ROS) are derived from normal physiological and metabolic processes that are essential to the living cell.[sup] [1] A free radical is any species that is capable of independent existence and contains one or more unpaired electrons.[sup] [2] Oxygen becomes eligible to be called a free radical as it contains two unpaired electrons, each in a different orbital and both spinning in the same direction. The unpaired electrons alter the chemical reactivity of an atom or molecule, more often rendering it more reactive than the corresponding non-radical.[sup] [3] The reductive environment of the cellular milieu provides ample opportunities for the oxygen to go through spontaneous univalent reduction. Thus, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and the extremely reactive hydroxyl radicals are common products of life in an aerobic environment and these agents are responsible for oxygen toxicity.[sup] [3] To continue to exist in such an adverse ambience, living organisms generate a number of antioxidant compounds mostly comprising of a variety of antioxidant enzymes, viz, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase etc, whose key objective is to seize and inactivate the generated reactive oxygen species.[sup] [1],[2]

Morbidity and mortality in diabetes is typically associated with the development of its various related complications like atherosclerosis, nephropathy and other microvascular complications. Oxidative stress as well as peroxidation of cellular structures, which is a consequence of increased free radical activity, are thought to play an important role in the accelerated degenerative changes in diabetes.[sup] [4],[5],[6] Oxidative stress as assessed by the index of lipid peroxidation has been shown to be elevated in diabetics.[sup] [7] In diabetes, excess oxygen radicals may result from the autooxidation of glucose,[sup] [8] although there is considerable evidence that antioxidant defence is depleted and that the activity of antioxidant enzymes is reduced. …

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