Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

Validation of the Physical Education Teachers' Physical Activity Self-Efficacy Scale with a Turkish Sample

Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

Validation of the Physical Education Teachers' Physical Activity Self-Efficacy Scale with a Turkish Sample

Article excerpt

For many years, physical educators focused their attention on physical fitness. More recently, their attention has changed to encouraging physical activity (Morrow & Jackson, 1999). Physical activity during the school day has the potential to develop into positive exercise behaviors in children, and participation in such activity could lead to increased physical activity for children outside of school (Daley, 2002). Physical educators recognize the importance of promoting physical activity among students and are looking for ways to promote student activity levels (Vincent & Pangrazi, 2002).

Physical education focuses on the whole child, including cognitive and affective aspects as well as psychomotor aspects. Physical educators know and strive to achieve national standards in physical education. The instructional program helps develop the fundamental skills needed to be physically active. Physical activity is the content and product of the physical education program, which supports many important related content areas. The goal of physical education is participation in health-enhancing physical activity for a lifetime (Monti, 2004). School physical education is available to most young people and provides a context for regular and structured physical activity participation. Regular physical activity can have immediate health benefits by positively affecting body composition and musculoskeletal development (Malina, Bouchard, & Bar-Or, 2004).

Physical education programs should provide a significant amount of time for all students to actively participate. Physical activity education promotes physical activity outside the class setting as an outcome of choosing a healthy, satisfying lifestyle (Monti, 2004). Understanding how teachers promote physical activity through physical education is vital, as leading health and physical activity organizations have all emphasized the importance of providing physical activity in school physical education (Martin & Kulinna, 2003).

Bandura (1986) proposed that self-efficacy beliefs contribute to psychosocial behavior in distinct ways. These beliefs will influence how people behave, their thought patterns, and emotional reactions in various situations. People will avoid situations they believe they are not capable of handling. Their level of efficacy will determine how much effort they put forth and how long they persist in the face of failure. One's efficacy regarding stress, attentional demands, and effort affects one's thoughts and emotional reactions. People with high self-efficacy can focus their attention on the task at hand and expend more effort than those with low efficacy who may be stressed and tend to divert attention from possible solutions. Bandura cautioned that efficacy judgments are believed to be a major determinant of behavior only when requisite skills and proper incentives are present.

Teachers are critical in determining the activities children engage in during physical education classes. They can decide to implement curriculums and teach lessons that focus on social skills, sport skills, or health related fitness. The choices teachers make about day-to-day lesson content clearly have an impact on how much activity children will take part in during class (Martin & Kulinna, 2003).

The validation of the Turkish form of the Physical Education Teachers' Physical Activity Self-efficacy Scale (PETPAS) is an important contribution to physical education research because it offers a theoretically sound and methodologically valid and reliable test score for assessing physical education teachers' physical activity self-efficacy for teaching physically active lessons in both middle and high school physical education settings in Turkey.

Therefore, the objective in this research was to test the validity and reliability of the PETPAS in the Turkish context in the area of physical education. Further objectives were to analyze the effects of gender and teaching experience on the PETPAS results. …

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