Information and Communication Technology has enhanced teachers' professional knowledge, skill, and capabilities by extending their subject knowledge, enabling planning and preparation for teaching to be more efficient (Leach, 2005). Research has also shown that ICT enables effective learning (Sutton, 2006). As a result of this, ICT is now recognized as an essential ingredient for creating 21st century learning environment. Educators worldwide are now harnessing the power of technology to transform learning and enhance results.
To foster classroom ICT integration, teachers have been identified to be a major factor in fostering classroom integration. This is because teachers constitute the facilitators and entrepreneurs in classroom ICT learning environment. For this reason, research efforts have concentrated on teacher-related factors such as ICT attitudes, self-efficacy, competence, etc. This is with the belief that each of this ICT-related behaviour will impact ICT use. For example Yuen, Law, and Chen (1999) identified teachers' positive attitude toward computers as an important factor in fostering computer integration and the enhancement of quality learning and teaching using computers. Kenzie, Delecourt, and Power (1994) opined that computer self-efficacy predicted computer use. Similarly, individuals who did not see themselves as competent ICT users were less likely to use ICT, in other words, competence is related to usage.
The missing fact in these findings is that the relationships between the constructs of each of these ICT behaviour components were not investigated. This may obscure important information and facts that may be needed in remedying identified problems. This information is what this study attempts to provide.
Previous endeavours in this context have investigated constructs of ICT attitudes and each of self-efficacy and competence (Jegede, 2007; Jegede, Dibu-Ojerinde, & Ilori, 2007). What is yet to be added is the answer to the question: What relationship exists between each of ICT attitudinal constructs and use level of teachers?
Use level in this context implies the extent to which teachers use ICT for personal and professional practices. Chin and Marcolin (2007) emphasized the need for examining the actual phenomena of ICT usage. Phenomena of usage according to authors encompassed ICT usage pattern, quality of usage and quantity of usage. The present study measures usage in quantitative and qualitative terms. Teachers in this study were those involved in pre-service teacher training institution in Nigeria, such as Colleges of Education and Universities' Faculties of Education.
The reason for choosing these populations is because good ICT behaviour when achieved among teacher educators will eventually be achieved on the student-teachers they teach. Thus tomorrow's ICT classroom environment will be guaranteed through these means. This is in consonance with Oliver (1994) who posited that unless student teachers have ICT role models, it will be impossible for them to integrate ICT into teaching. The sole objective of the study therefore is to ascertain the nature of relationship that exists between ICT attitudinal constructs and use level of teachers.
Participants and Setting
Four hundred and sixty seven teachers selected from ten teacher education institutions (five Colleges of Education and five Universities) participated in the study. The sample covers all teaching cadre and subject discipline. Two research instruments were employed to collect relevant data. These included Teachers ICT Attitudinal Scale (TICTAS) designed by Selwyn (1987) but adapted by Soh (1998) and Teachers' Use of ICT Checklist (TUIC). TICTAS is a 21-item five-point Likert scale with five constructs namely; affective components, perceived usefulness factor, behavioural factor, perceived control factor and defense factor. …