Academic journal article Education

The Effects of Sources of Motivation on Teachers' Motivation Levels

Academic journal article Education

The Effects of Sources of Motivation on Teachers' Motivation Levels

Article excerpt

Introduction

Education is a process of behavioral change and development that occurs continuously throughout every stage of life. Teachers are active in every stage of that process. The formation of desirable behavior in the student is closely linked to the motivation levels of the teacher, as well as the teacher's attitude and behavior. Low motivation levels in the teacher, who is in a critical position in the education and schooling process, has a negative impact on the achievement of high standards in education.

It should be noted that there is a motive, or a string of motives, behind every kind of behavior in all situations (Cuceloglu, 1997). Almost everyone is in some way motivated. The motivation might be to become rich, to become famous, or simply to gain status. According to Peters and Waterman (1995) researchers have identified that the main factor in motivating people is to give the individual a sense of success. However, levels of stimulation and anxiety, needs, beliefs and goals also significantly influence a person's motivation (Keskin, 2007). An individual's motivation level is dependent on the material and social benefits he or she gains from the institution they work in (Findikci, 2006). It is not just their physiological needs that employees need to be met by the organizations they work for. According to Basaran (1984) the individual also has social and psychological needs to be addressed by an employer.

Teachers are responsible to their schools. The principal and the school board are primarily responsible for the administration of a school. The main responsibility for motivating teachers falls to the school administration (Kocabas & Karakose, 2002). According to Benaych (1996) school governors should be there to enthuse and invigorate rather than to "shape" schools. Whilst inspiring and encouraging positivity in others, strong leaders will at the same time increase and maintain their own motivation (Celik, 1999). The teacher is responsible for focusing the students' attention to, and interest in, learning. The enthusiasm of the teacher in daily activities has a significant impact on increasing the students' motivation levels. A key task of the teacher is to ensure the motivation of students (Deniz et al., 2006). Once achieved this links directly to the teacher's own motivation level.

Concepts of motivation include the expenditure of effort to achieve a goal (Martin, 2000); creating forces that power and drive behaviors (Bursalioglu, 2002); improving a situation perceived to be difficult by ah individual, meeting needs (Dull, 1981); providing driving forces to urge us into action (Genc, 1987), developing a physiological and psychological process which takes into account individual desires, goals, tendencies, behavior, self-interest, selection, preference, willpower and drive (Srekli & Tevruz, 1997); a consideration of both intrinsic and extrinsic forces that actuate, direct and maintain behaviors (Gursel, 1997); increasing employees' willingness to work and making them believe that they will satisfy their personal needs best if they work efficiently in the organization (Yuksel, 1998).

Definitions of motivation may vary but all agree that almost everyone is motivated in one way or another. Because everyone has a different background and personality, different interests and attitudes, expectations, desires and needs, sources of motivation differ according to the individual. Even so, according to Arik (1996), motivation has four fundamental functions--namely initiation, the determination of intensity and level, the direction and maintenance of behavior. In this context, motivation is related directly to the source of the behavior, and how behavior can be directed, or its intensity increased once it is directed. The reason for this is that human beings are by nature action-oriented and their actions can be influenced by various means and methods (Keskin, 2007). …

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