The current educational paradigm requires a review on the development processes for elaborating learning objects. The differences between students are, most of the times, not taken into consideration, leading to the creation of inefficient resources which do not provide an environment for the students to engage and exercise their potentialities. In order to elaborate a learning object in which the student is the main focus it is necessary to use appropriate technological tools as well as theories which provide ways for creating efficient and customized approaches.
This research aimed to analyze recent instructional design theories, and, supported by multiple intelligences and learning styles theories, to elaborate an effective implementation of a learning object through technologies which allow dynamic, adaptive approaches.
Instructional design proposals deal with a huge amount of variables like systemic structure. It implies in producing data analysis in order to provide student with situations which are relevant for his needs and peculiarities. Besides, instructional design structures deal with probabilities, which significantly improve learning efficiency, but do not cope with all possibilities involved in this process. However, this problem can be mitigated through an ongoing evaluation of the learner performance. In this way, alternatives and different approaches for a specific content to be learned should be presented to the learner throughout the use of the learning object.
The organization of this research is described as follows: section Learning Objects: instructional design and multiple intelligences approaches presents concepts related to learning objects, instructional design and multiple intelligences theories; section Modeling Learning Objects of Dynamic Media Using Design Patterns deals with the architecture proposed for building the application as well as the technologies used; section Developing a MILO shows the storyboard structure applied and the results collected; and, finally, last section presents Conclusions and Further Works.
Learning Objects: Instructional Design and Multiple Intelligences Approaches
Lowerison et al. (2003) define learning objects as any type of object which facilitates learning in a media context based on computer. Wiley (2002) broadens the definition, considering learning object any digital device which could be used to support learning.
Reigeluth and Nelson (1997) suggest that instructional materials should be divided in small reusable parts. Once teachers grant access to these parts, it is possible to rearrange the structure making it possible to reach the goals of an instruction or educational process. It is possible to follow such guidelines while building learning objects by creating independent instructions or educational resources which might, later, be used together.
Such learning objects can be used for different purposes as well as for distinct kinds of training. Some e-learning proposals which use such objects are listed below (Chairman, n.d.):
* CBT (Computer Based Training)--CBTs are training software where computer plays the role of an instructor. Activities are presented to learners through tests, simulations and exercises, among other activities. CBTs are usually delivered through CD-ROMs and intranets.
* WBT (Web Based Training)--A CBT which is accessed over the internet is considered a WBT. In this kind of training the materials are available in Web servers, which allow its use by multiple learners simultaneously.
* ILT (Instructor Lead Training)--In this kind of training the instructor is the person who guides the learners group during the learning process.
The development, implementation and availability of learning objects for e-learning proposals are made through LMS (Learning Management Systems) or through LCMS (Learning Content Management Systems). …