Academic journal article Education & Treatment of Children

Review of Video Modeling with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Academic journal article Education & Treatment of Children

Review of Video Modeling with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Article excerpt

Abstract

Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) often engage in behavior that is disruptive in the classroom, impedes educational progress, and inhibits peer relationships. Video modeling has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention for other challenging populations (e.g., autism) and has been identified as a feasible intervention within schools. This review examined the efficacy of video modeling as an intervention for students with EBD. The sixteen studies included are evaluated in terms of participants, intervention procedures, dependent variables, and results. Studies are categorized and discussed according to the behavior targeted for intervention (i.e., increasing peer interaction, increasing on-task behavior, and decreasing inappropriate behavior). Results suggest that video modeling is an effective intervention for each of these target behaviors. However, gaps in the research (e.g., limited social validity data) exist and warrant future research.

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Emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is a term created by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004) and refers to the spectrum of students who experience social, emotional, and behavioral problems who are not otherwise served under special education (Cook et al., 2008). The number of students described as having EBD is increasing (Sawka, McCurdy, & Mannella, 2002). Indeed, the number of students between the ages of three and 21 served in federally-supported programs in the emotional disturbance category from 1976 to 2004 nearly doubled, from 283,000 to 489,000 (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 2007). Despite this recorded increase, this group of students has been empirically demonstrated to be both under-identified and underserved (Walker, Nishioka, Zeller, Severson, & Feil, 2000).

Students with EBD often engage in behavior that is disruptive in the classroom, impedes educational progress, and inhibits their ability to form and maintain peer relationships (Cook et al., 2008; Hitchcock, Dowrick, & Prater, 2003; Kern-Dunlap, 1992; Trout, Nordness, Pierce, & Epstein, 2003; Musser, Bray, Kehle, & Jenson, 2001; Wagner et al., 2006). The results of Smith's 1990 survey of general education teachers indicated that students with EBD were the primary reason for leaving the profession. As such, the creation of effective, feasible, and acceptable classroom interventions is a major aim for research involving this population (Stage et al., 2008).

Efforts to improve students' behavior and performance are perpetuated by provisions of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). These provisions require the use of scientifically-based practices when addressing academic and behavioral goals. A variety of interventions for students with EBD have been researched. While many of these interventions produce degrees of positive change, they also often demand a great deal of teacher time and effort to implement (Booth & Fairbank, 1984; Wagner et al., 2006).

Video modeling consists of having an individual watch a video of her/himself (or someone similar) engage in the behavior targeted for improvement. Video modeling interventions may have an advantage over other strategies because they rely predominately on simply allowing the student to watch the video. Use of video modeling has numerous benefits, including demonstration of desired skills in relevant contexts, use of multiple stimulus and response exemplars, and standardization of the presentation of training, allowing for consistency (Morgan & Salzberg, 1992). Video modeling was derived from social learning theory, in which individuals are believed to learn through observation (Bandura, 1969; 1986; 1997). Bandura described video modeling as containing the fundamental elements of self-efficacy. He suggested that the advantage of seeing oneself perform successfully is that it provides clear information on how best to perform skills, and it strengthens beliefs in one's capability. …

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