Academic journal article Indian Journal of Industrial Relations

Perceived Organizational Values & Commitment to Organization

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Industrial Relations

Perceived Organizational Values & Commitment to Organization

Article excerpt

Values

Researchers have studied the concept of values extensively. Rokeach (1973) and Enz (1988) viewed values as beliefs. Locke (1976) and Dose (1997) considered values as desires and standards respectively. Attempts were made to list out values, which influence human behaviour. Rokeach (1973) listed 18 terminal values which became the basis for many further researches. Schwartz & Bilsky (1987) clubbed similar values in domains and came up with different domains such as, achievement, self-direction, benevolence, conformity etc. Similarly McDonald and Gandz (1991) came up with four clusters of values viz., humanity, vision, adherence to convention and bottom-line. Finegan (2000) compared Schwartz & Bilsky's and McDonald & Gandz's classifications and noted that 'humanity', 'vision' and 'adherence to convention' matched with 'benevolence', 'self-direction' and 'conformity' respectively. However 'bottom-line' cluster of McDonald and Gandz did not match with any of the domains put forth by Schwartz and Bilsky. Finegan (2000) reasoned that this was so because Schwartz's purpose was to find business values and not universal values.

The relationships between the personal values and attitude have been extensively studied (Meglino & Ravlin 1998). Literature also shows studies linking organizational values with attitude like organizational commitment (Finegan 2000). However in the Indian scenario the studies have tried mostly to link personal values with job attitudes. This study is an attempt to extend the work of Finegan (2000) and see the relationship between organizational values (perceived) and organizational commitment among Indian managers. Unlike in the Finegan (2000) study, this study considers only the perceived values of the organization and not the match between the values of the person and the organization.

Allen and Meyer (1990), in their study of 256 employees from two manufacturing firms and a university, developed a scale to measure three components of commitment viz., affective (emotional), continuance (cost of leaving the organization), and normative (obligation). In another study, they collected data from a retail department store, a hospital and a university library (sample size 337) to examine the scale and also to relate the components of commitment to their antecedents. They found the existence of affective, continuance and normative components of organizational commitment. Hackett, Bycio and Husdor (1994), assessed a three-component model of organizational commitment. The results (Sample: 2301 nurses) supported existence of 3 components of commitment, i.e. affective, continuance and normative. Meyer, Allen and Smith (1993), also tested the 3-component model of organizational commitment. The data was collected from nurses and students. The results supported the three components of commitment.

Finegan (2000) used the list of values of McDonald and Gandz (1991), clustered into 4 categories (a) bottom line (e.g. diligence, experimentation, economy, logic) (b) vision (e.g. openness, initiative, creativity, development) (c) adherence to convention (e.g. cautiousness, formality, obedience) and (d) humanity (e.g. cooperation, moral integrity, fairness, courtesy, consideration, forgiveness) and tried to see the relationship of each cluster of values with types of commitment (i.e. affective, continuance and normative). The participants for this study were from a large petrochemical company who rated 24 values (in terms of their importance) from their perspectives and from the organization's perspectives. Meyer and Allen's commitment scale was also filled up by them. The results did show that different clusters of organizational values predicted different components of commitment.

Abbot, White and Charles (2005) further investigated the work of Finegan (2000) by studying the relationship between values and commitment in non commercial organizations out of which one organization had religious affiliation. …

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