Academic journal article Journal of the National Society of Allied Health

Relationships between HIV Stigma, Parenting Stress, Social Support Network, Physical Functioning, and Emotional Well-Being among HIV Infected African American Women

Academic journal article Journal of the National Society of Allied Health

Relationships between HIV Stigma, Parenting Stress, Social Support Network, Physical Functioning, and Emotional Well-Being among HIV Infected African American Women

Article excerpt

Introduction

Despite the notable advances in HIV therapies resulting in long term survival among individuals living with HIV, researchers agree that African American women continue to have the highest HIV prevalence and mortality. While African Americans comprise only 13% of the United States population, they are the most affected population group. African American women diagnosed with AIDS were approximately 23 times (45.5/100,000) the rate for white women (2.0/100,000) and 4 times the rate (11.2/100,000) for Hispanic women (CDC, 2005). The number of new HIV infections among women are expected to increase (CDC, 2005) and the majority of these women are of child bearing age. The increasing numbers will continue to reflect a higher percentage among African American women living with HIV who are also mothers. Therefore, the problem of HIV clearly presents a public health concern for the health-related quality of life of African American women and mothers in particular.

Being a parent can be stressful, but, with the added stress of an HIV illness, parenting may be overwhelming. African American women who are confronted with even greater caregiving demands, including caring for other adults in the household who may also be HIV patients (Baker, 2003; Hader, Smith, Moore, & Holberg (2001), which affects their self care as well as their parenting responsibilities. Parenting related stress has been associated with the negative physical health of mothers living with HIV (Nomaguchi & Milkie, 2003; Oyserman, Mowbray, Meares, & Firminger, 2003). Bauman, Camacho, Silver, Hudis, and Draimin (2002) suggested that HIV serostatus in mothers is linked with parenting difficulties and child stress-related adjustment (Forehand, Armistead, Morse, Simon, & Clarke, 1996; Murphy, Marrelich, Dello Stritto, Swandeman & Witkin, 2002). Additionally, African American mothers living with HIV face not only the social challenges related to HIV stigma, but stigmas related to race and gender (Buseh & Stevens, 2006; Carr & Gramling, 2004), which affects the ability to access social support needed in caring for their illness and their children.

Several studies have addressed relationships between HIV stigma, parenting stress, social support and health-related quality of life among women living with HIV (Miles et al., 2003; Sowel, Seals, Moneyham, Demi, Cohen & Brake, 1997). However, while African American women comprise the majority in many of the samples used, it was not clear how the stress from parenting was linked to social support and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among African American women living with HIV. The present study examined the relationship of HIV stigma, parenting stress, social support networks, and the physical functioning and emotional well-being aspects of HRQOL, and the extent to which social support network affect the relationship between parenting stress, physical functioning and emotional well-being of African American women living with HIV.

Four hypotheses were tested: (1) There is a significant relationship between perceived HIV stigma, physical functioning and perceived HIV stigma and emotional well-being; (2) There is a significant relationship between parenting stress, physical functioning, parenting stress and emotional well-being; (3) There is a relationship between the three subscales of social support (i.e., emotional, tangible, and total support network) and physical functioning and emotional well-being; (4) When parenting stress is high, women with higher levels of social support will experience higher levels of physical functioning and emotional well-being than women with higher parenting stress who have lower levels of these types of support suggesting a direct relationship between social support levels and parenting stress in African American women living with HIV.

Methods

Sample: One hundred and four African American women 19 years and older participated in the study. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.