Academic journal article Journal of International Women's Studies

The Role of Gender, Self-Efficacy, Age and Extroversion on Smoking Behaviour among Ambrose Alli University Students, Ekpoma, Nigeria

Academic journal article Journal of International Women's Studies

The Role of Gender, Self-Efficacy, Age and Extroversion on Smoking Behaviour among Ambrose Alli University Students, Ekpoma, Nigeria

Article excerpt


This study examined the role of gender, self-efficacy, age and extroversion on smoking behavior among Ambrose Alli University Students. Two hundred and fifty (250) undergraduates participated in the study (males 160 and females 90). Questionnaire was used in collecting data that were analyzed in this study. The questionnaire consisted of 4 sections: the demographic variables, extroversion scale, self-efficacy scale and attitude toward smoking scale. Two out of the four hypotheses tested were supported. Results of the independent t-test indicated that there was a significant difference in the onset of smoking between females and males (t = 2.354, df = 248, P = <.05). Result also showed that self-efficacy was significant when considering attitudes toward smoking behavior (t = 3.256, df = 248, P = <.05). However, age and extroversion was not found to be significant while considering smoking initiation and cessation. Based on the findings of this study it was recommended that the smokers' self-efficacy and gender must be taken seriously while considering smoking cessation. It also has implication for counseling.

Keywords: gender and smoking, Nigeria, university students


Smoking among adults has been said to decline sharply, while a significant number of adolescents continue to adopt smoking as a habit (Thorndike, Rigotti, Safford & Singer, 1998). Research has identified some factors that may be important for the onset of smoking: Such factors include the followings, curiosity, the use of tobacco by parents, siblings and peer group pressure, personality variables such as extroversion and introversion, risk taking, feelings of anomie, search for meaning and rebellion against parents, search for excitement, animosity, poor relationship with authority figure, family disorganization, boredom, reduction of feelings of personal adequacy, escape from responsibility, moodiness, nervousness, evasiveness, notoriety, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, and hyperactivity.

Smoking is possible under a wide variety of circumstance or settings. These numerous settings become discriminative for smoking and thus come to serve as learned reinforcers for smoking. Thus an urge is subjectively experienced when these situations are encountered. The enjoyment of oral, manual, and respiratory manipulation involved in the process of lighting, puffing, and handling cigarette reinforce the art of smoking. For most smokers therefore, the combination of nicotine and psychosocial learning produces such dependency that going without a cigarette is highly unpleasant (Fleming, Leventhal, Glynn & Ershler, 1989).

Different factors are involved at different stages of smoking and this has implication for intervention. Higher levels of drug use including cigarette smoking has been found to be associated with parental use, family background, single parentage, parental conflict, family disorganization, social class and peer group (Ndom & Adelekan, 1996). Ndom and Adelekan describe the typical smoker as male, young, single, from a polygamous and a low socioeconomic background. In their phase 1 survey, Ndom and Adelekan (1996) identified the following as common correlates to the three substances investigated (alcohol, cigarettes and cannabis); Peer influence, self-reported poor mental health, religiosity, parental/guardian supervision, perceived availability and perceived harmfulness.

In addition, drinking and smoking were reported to be more common among males and among respondents who reported study difficulties. The findings of Adelekan and Ndom supported already existing literature. Mangan and Golding (1983) found that about 32 percent of smokers have mothers who smoke as against 23 percent of non-smoking mothers. They also found that a high percentage of smokers were found to have fathers who smoke and senior siblings and friends that smoke. These factors have implications for assessment and treatment. …

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